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Diagnostics 2015, 5(4), 428-474; doi:10.3390/diagnostics5040428

When Prostate Cancer Circulates in the Bloodstream

Cancer Research Centre of Lyon, U1052 INSERM, CNRS 5286, Léon Bérard Centre, Lyon I University, 28 rue Laennec, Lyon 69008, France
Medical Unit of Molecular Oncology and Transfer, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University Hospital of Lyon-Sud, Hospices Civils of Lyon, Lyon 69008, France
Academic Editor: Stephen Assinder
Received: 24 August 2015 / Revised: 14 October 2015 / Accepted: 22 October 2015 / Published: 29 October 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prostate Cancer Diagnosis)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [823 KB, uploaded 29 October 2015]


Management of patients with prostate cancer is currently based on imperfect clinical, biological, radiological and pathological evaluation. Prostate cancer aggressiveness, including metastatic potential, remains difficult to accurately estimate. In an attempt to better adapt therapeutics to an individual (personalized medicine), reliable evaluation of the intrinsic molecular biology of the tumor is warranted, and particularly for all tumor sites (primary tumors and secondary sites) at any time of the disease progression. As a consequence of their natural tendency to grow (passive invasion) or as a consequence of an active blood vessel invasion by metastase-initiating cells, tumors shed various materials into the bloodstream. Major efforts have been recently made to develop powerful and accurate methods able to detect, quantify and/or analyze all these circulating tumor materials: circulating tumors cells, disseminating tumor cells, extracellular vesicles (including exosomes), nucleic acids, etc. The aim of this review is to summarize current knowledge about these circulating tumor materials and their applications in translational research. View Full-Text
Keywords: prostate cancer; circulating biomarker; diagnosis; tumor aggressiveness; metastasis; circulating tumor cells; extracellular vesicles; exosomes; free cell DNA; miRNA prostate cancer; circulating biomarker; diagnosis; tumor aggressiveness; metastasis; circulating tumor cells; extracellular vesicles; exosomes; free cell DNA; miRNA
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Vlaeminck-Guillem, V. When Prostate Cancer Circulates in the Bloodstream. Diagnostics 2015, 5, 428-474.

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