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Life 2015, 5(1), 969-996; doi:10.3390/life5010969

Physical Routes to Primitive Cells: An Experimental Model Based on the Spontaneous Entrapment of Enzymes inside Micrometer-Sized Liposomes

1
Science Department, Roma Tre University, Viale G. Marconi 446, I-00146 Rome, Italy
2
Institut für Pharmazie, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Lessingstraße 8, D-07743 Jena, Germany
3
Chemistry Department, University of Bari, Via E. Orabona 4, I-70125 Bari, Italy
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Helga Stan-Lotter
Received: 13 February 2015 / Revised: 8 March 2015 / Accepted: 10 March 2015 / Published: 18 March 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protocells - Designs for Life)
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Abstract

How did primitive living cells originate? The formation of early cells, which were probably solute-filled vesicles capable of performing a rudimentary metabolism (and possibly self-reproduction), is still one of the big unsolved questions in origin of life. We have recently used lipid vesicles (liposomes) as primitive cell models, aiming at the study of the physical mechanisms for macromolecules encapsulation. We have reported that proteins and ribosomes can be encapsulated very efficiently, against statistical expectations, inside a small number of liposomes. Moreover the transcription-translation mixture, which realistically mimics a sort of minimal metabolic network, can be functionally reconstituted in liposomes owing to a self-concentration mechanism. Here we firstly summarize the recent advancements in this research line, highlighting how these results open a new vista on the phenomena that could have been important for the formation of functional primitive cells. Then, we present new evidences on the non-random entrapment of macromolecules (proteins, dextrans) in phospholipid vesicle, and in particular we show how enzymatic reactions can be accelerated because of the enhancement of their concentration inside liposomes. View Full-Text
Keywords: carbonic anhydrase; confocal microscopy; crowding; spontaneous concentration; enzymes; lipid vesicles (liposomes); primitive cells; proteinase K; self-organization carbonic anhydrase; confocal microscopy; crowding; spontaneous concentration; enzymes; lipid vesicles (liposomes); primitive cells; proteinase K; self-organization
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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D'Aguanno, E.; Altamura, E.; Mavelli, F.; Fahr, A.; Stano, P.; Luisi, P.L. Physical Routes to Primitive Cells: An Experimental Model Based on the Spontaneous Entrapment of Enzymes inside Micrometer-Sized Liposomes. Life 2015, 5, 969-996.

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