Next Article in Journal
Growth and Division in a Dynamic Protocell Model
Next Article in Special Issue
Metals in Cyanobacteria: Analysis of the Copper, Nickel, Cobalt and Arsenic Homeostasis Mechanisms
Previous Article in Journal
RNA Sociology: Group Behavioral Motifs of RNA Consortia
Previous Article in Special Issue
The Effects of Dark Incubation on Cellular Metabolism of the Wild Type Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and a Mutant Lacking the Transcriptional Regulator cyAbrB2
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Life 2014, 4(4), 819-836; doi:10.3390/life4040819

Cellular Dynamics Drives the Emergence of Supracellular Structure in the Cyanobacterium, Phormidium sp. KS

1
Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, University of Tokyo, Komaba 3-8-1, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902, Japan
2
Department of Social Engineering, School of Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama 2-12-1, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 October 2014 / Revised: 12 November 2014 / Accepted: 19 November 2014 / Published: 28 November 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cyanobacteria: Ecology, Physiology and Genetics)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2056 KB, uploaded 28 November 2014]   |  

Abstract

Motile filamentous cyanobacteria, such as Oscillatoria, Phormidium and Arthrospira, are ubiquitous in terrestrial and aquatic environments. As noted by Nägeli in 1860, many of them form complex three-dimensional or two-dimensional structures, such as biofilm, weed-like thalli, bundles of filaments and spirals, which we call supracellular structures. In all of these structures, individual filaments incessantly move back and forth. The structures are, therefore, macroscopic, dynamic structures that are continuously changing their microscopic arrangement of filaments. In the present study, we analyzed quantitatively the movement of individual filaments of Phormidium sp. KS grown on agar plates. Junctional pores, which have been proposed to drive cell movement by mucilage/slime secretion, were found to align on both sides of each septum. The velocity of movement was highest just after the reversal of direction and, then, attenuated exponentially to a final value before the next reversal of direction. This kinetics is compatible with the “slime gun” model. A higher agar concentration restricts the movement more severely and, thus, resulted in more spiral formation. The spiral is a robust form compatible with non-homogeneous movements of different parts of a long filament. We propose a model of spiral formation based on the microscopic movement of filaments. View Full-Text
Keywords: cyanobacteria; Phormidium; supracellular structure; biofilm; spiral formation; emergence of order; slime gun model cyanobacteria; Phormidium; supracellular structure; biofilm; spiral formation; emergence of order; slime gun model
Figures

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Review Report

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Sato, N.; Katsumata, Y.; Sato, K.; Tajima, N. Cellular Dynamics Drives the Emergence of Supracellular Structure in the Cyanobacterium, Phormidium sp. KS. Life 2014, 4, 819-836.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Life EISSN 2075-1729 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top