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Antibodies, Volume 6, Issue 1 (March 2017)

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessEditorial Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Antibodies in 2016
Antibodies 2017, 6(1), 2; doi:10.3390/antib6010002
Received: 18 January 2017 / Accepted: 18 January 2017 / Published: 18 January 2017
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Abstract The editors of Antibodies would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2016.[...] Full article

Research

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Open AccessArticle Pairing Alpaca and Llama-Derived Single Domain Antibodies to Enhance Immunoassays for Ricin
Antibodies 2017, 6(1), 3; doi:10.3390/antib6010003
Received: 18 October 2016 / Accepted: 17 January 2017 / Published: 2 February 2017
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Abstract
Previously, our group isolated and evaluated anti-ricin single domain antibodies (sdAbs) derived from llamas, engineered them to further increase their thermal stability, and utilized them for the development of sensitive immunoassays. In work focused on the development of therapeutics, Vance et al. 2013
[...] Read more.
Previously, our group isolated and evaluated anti-ricin single domain antibodies (sdAbs) derived from llamas, engineered them to further increase their thermal stability, and utilized them for the development of sensitive immunoassays. In work focused on the development of therapeutics, Vance et al. 2013 described anti-ricin sdAbs derived from alpacas. Herein, we evaluated the utility of selected alpaca-derived anti-ricin sdAbs for detection applications, and engineered an alpaca-derived sdAb to increase its melting temperature, providing a highly thermal stable reagent for use in ricin detection. Four of the alpaca-derived anti-ricin A-chain sdAbs were produced and characterized. All four bound to epitopes that overlapped with our previously described llama sdAbs. One alpaca sdAb, F6, was found to possess both a high melting temperature (73 °C) and to work optimally with a thermally stable llama anti-ricin sdAb in sandwich assays for ricin detection. We employed a combination of consensus sequence mutagenesis and the addition of a non-canonical disulfide bond to further enhance the thermal stability of F6 to 85 °C. It is advantageous to have a choice of recognition reagents when developing assays. This work resulted in defining an additional pair of highly thermal stable sdAbs for the sensitive detection of ricin. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview Epitope Specificity of Anti-Citrullinated Protein Antibodies
Antibodies 2017, 6(1), 5; doi:10.3390/antib6010005
Received: 30 November 2016 / Revised: 6 February 2017 / Accepted: 22 February 2017 / Published: 8 March 2017
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Abstract
Anti-citrullinated protein antibodies are primarily associated with a progressive course in the autoimmune disease rheumatoid arthritis, a disease with a chronic and inflammatory nature. These antibodies do not appear to have any strict dependency for reactivity except from the presence of the non-genetically
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Anti-citrullinated protein antibodies are primarily associated with a progressive course in the autoimmune disease rheumatoid arthritis, a disease with a chronic and inflammatory nature. These antibodies do not appear to have any strict dependency for reactivity except from the presence of the non-genetically encoded amino acid citrulline, which is the result of a posttranslational modification, catalyzed by calcium-dependent peptidylarginine deiminase enzymes. Nevertheless, several amino acids surrounding the citrulline residue notably influence antibody reactivity, especially with a central-Cit-Gly-motif being essential for antibody reactivity. Most importantly, these antibodies have been proposed to be divided into two groups, based on their ability to recognize multiple citrullinated peptides. Thus, an “overlapping” antibody group, which appears to recognize several citrullinated peptides, and a “non-overlapping” antibody group, which only recognizes a limited number of citrullinated peptides, have been proposed. Based on these findings, we suggest that antibodies recognizing several citrullinated targets, also referred to as cross-reactive antibodies, primarily are backbone-dependent, whereas less cross-reactive antibodies primarily depend on the side chains of the amino acids comprising the epitopes for stable antibody-antigen interactions, which reduces the degree of cross-reactivity significantly. Clarifying the reactivity pattern of anti-citrullinated protein antibodies may contribute to determining their true nature of origin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Auto-Antibody and Autoimmune Disease)
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Open AccessReview Neutrophil Extracellular Traps, Antiphospholipid Antibodies and Treatment
Antibodies 2017, 6(1), 4; doi:10.3390/antib6010004
Received: 1 January 2017 / Revised: 1 March 2017 / Accepted: 1 March 2017 / Published: 6 March 2017
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Abstract
Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are a network of extracellular fibers, compounds of chromatin, neutrophil DNA and histones, which are covered with antimicrobial enzymes with granular components. Autophagy and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase are
[...] Read more.
Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are a network of extracellular fibers, compounds of chromatin, neutrophil DNA and histones, which are covered with antimicrobial enzymes with granular components. Autophagy and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase are essential in the formation of NETs. There is increasing evidence that suggests that autoantibodies against beta-2-glycoprotein-1 (B2GP1) induce NETs and enhance thrombosis. Past research on new mechanisms of thrombosis formation in antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) has elucidated the pharmacokinetics of the most common medication in the treatment of the disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antiphospholipid Antibodies and Syndrome)
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Open AccessReview Pathogenic and Protective Autoantibodies in Autoimmune Polyendocrinopathy-Candidiasis-Ectodermal Dystrophy (APECED)
Antibodies 2017, 6(1), 1; doi:10.3390/antib6010001
Received: 27 October 2016 / Revised: 22 November 2016 / Accepted: 13 January 2017 / Published: 17 January 2017
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Abstract
Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) is a rare disorder caused by mutations in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene, leading to defects in T cell selection. The disease manifestations include both autoimmune tissue destruction and immunodeficiency, with specific susceptibility to chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis.
[...] Read more.
Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) is a rare disorder caused by mutations in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene, leading to defects in T cell selection. The disease manifestations include both autoimmune tissue destruction and immunodeficiency, with specific susceptibility to chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis. Studies have demonstrated a wide repertoire of high affinity tissue- and cytokine-specific antibodies in patients with APECED. Here, we review the antigenic targets and function of these disease-causing and disease-ameliorating antibodies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Auto-Antibody and Autoimmune Disease)

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