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Antibodies 2013, 2(3), 426-451; doi:10.3390/antib2030426
Review

Molecular Engineering of Therapeutic Cytokines

* ,  and
Garvan Institute of Medical Research, 384 Victoria Street, Darlinghurst, Sydney, New South Wales 2010, Australia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 May 2013 / Revised: 13 June 2013 / Accepted: 13 June 2013 / Published: 3 July 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cytokine Growth Factor Antibodies in Immunotherapy)
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Abstract

Over the past three decades, a large body of work has been directed at the development of therapeutic cytokines. Despite their central role in immune modulation, only a handful of cytokine therapeutics has achieved regulatory approval. One of the major challenges associated with the therapeutic use of cytokines relates to their short serum half-life and low bioavailability. High doses are required to overcome these problems, which often result in dose-limiting toxicities. Consequently, most cytokines require protein engineering approaches to reduce toxicity and increase half-life. For this purpose, PEGylation, fusion proteins, antibody complexes and mutagenesis have been utilized. Here, we summarize past, recent and emerging strategies in this area.
Keywords: immunotherapy; cytokines; protein engineering; immunocytokines; fusion proteins immunotherapy; cytokines; protein engineering; immunocytokines; fusion proteins
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Vazquez-Lombardi, R.; Roome, B.; Christ, D. Molecular Engineering of Therapeutic Cytokines. Antibodies 2013, 2, 426-451.

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