Open AccessThis article is
- freely available
Molecular Engineering of Therapeutic Cytokines
Garvan Institute of Medical Research, 384 Victoria Street, Darlinghurst, Sydney, New South Wales 2010, Australia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 May 2013; in revised form: 13 June 2013 / Accepted: 13 June 2013 / Published: 3 July 2013
Abstract: Over the past three decades, a large body of work has been directed at the development of therapeutic cytokines. Despite their central role in immune modulation, only a handful of cytokine therapeutics has achieved regulatory approval. One of the major challenges associated with the therapeutic use of cytokines relates to their short serum half-life and low bioavailability. High doses are required to overcome these problems, which often result in dose-limiting toxicities. Consequently, most cytokines require protein engineering approaches to reduce toxicity and increase half-life. For this purpose, PEGylation, fusion proteins, antibody complexes and mutagenesis have been utilized. Here, we summarize past, recent and emerging strategies in this area.
Keywords: immunotherapy; cytokines; protein engineering; immunocytokines; fusion proteins
Citations to this Article
Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Vazquez-Lombardi, R.; Roome, B.; Christ, D. Molecular Engineering of Therapeutic Cytokines. Antibodies 2013, 2, 426-451.
Vazquez-Lombardi R, Roome B, Christ D. Molecular Engineering of Therapeutic Cytokines. Antibodies. 2013; 2(3):426-451.
Vazquez-Lombardi, Rodrigo; Roome, Brendan; Christ, Daniel. 2013. "Molecular Engineering of Therapeutic Cytokines." Antibodies 2, no. 3: 426-451.