Antibodies 2013, 2(3), 426-451; doi:10.3390/antib2030426
Review

Molecular Engineering of Therapeutic Cytokines

Received: 9 May 2013; in revised form: 13 June 2013 / Accepted: 13 June 2013 / Published: 3 July 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cytokine Growth Factor Antibodies in Immunotherapy)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Over the past three decades, a large body of work has been directed at the development of therapeutic cytokines. Despite their central role in immune modulation, only a handful of cytokine therapeutics has achieved regulatory approval. One of the major challenges associated with the therapeutic use of cytokines relates to their short serum half-life and low bioavailability. High doses are required to overcome these problems, which often result in dose-limiting toxicities. Consequently, most cytokines require protein engineering approaches to reduce toxicity and increase half-life. For this purpose, PEGylation, fusion proteins, antibody complexes and mutagenesis have been utilized. Here, we summarize past, recent and emerging strategies in this area.
Keywords: immunotherapy; cytokines; protein engineering; immunocytokines; fusion proteins
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vazquez-Lombardi, R.; Roome, B.; Christ, D. Molecular Engineering of Therapeutic Cytokines. Antibodies 2013, 2, 426-451.

AMA Style

Vazquez-Lombardi R, Roome B, Christ D. Molecular Engineering of Therapeutic Cytokines. Antibodies. 2013; 2(3):426-451.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vazquez-Lombardi, Rodrigo; Roome, Brendan; Christ, Daniel. 2013. "Molecular Engineering of Therapeutic Cytokines." Antibodies 2, no. 3: 426-451.

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