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Current and Potential Uses of Immunocytokines as Cancer Immunotherapy
The Departments of Pediatrics, Human Oncology and Genetics and the UW Carbone Cancer Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53792, USA
Provenance Biopharmaceuticals Corp, Burlington, MA 01805, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 June 2012; in revised form: 26 June 2012 / Accepted: 26 June 2012 / Published: 4 July 2012
Abstract: Immunocytokines (ICs) are a class of molecules created by linking tumor-reactive monoclonal antibodies to cytokines that are able to activate immune cells. Tumor selective localization is provided by the ability of the mAb component to bind to molecules found on the tumor cell surface or molecules found selectively in the tumor microenvronment. In this way the cytokine component of the immunocytokine is selectively localized to sites of tumor and can activate immune cells with appropriate receptors for the cytokine. Immunocytokines have been made and tested by us, and others, using a variety of tumor-reactive mAbs linked to distinct cytokines. To date, the majority of clinical progress has been made with ICs that have linked human interleukin-2 (IL2) to a select number of tumor reactive mAbs that had already been in prior clinical testing as non-modified mAbs. Here we briefly review the background for the creation of ICs, summarize current clinical progress, emphasize mechanisms of action for ICs that are distinct from those of their constituent components, and present some directions for future development and testing.
Keywords: immunocytokine; ADCC; cancer; immunotherapy
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Sondel, P.M.; Gillies, S.D. Current and Potential Uses of Immunocytokines as Cancer Immunotherapy. Antibodies 2012, 1, 149-171.
Sondel PM, Gillies SD. Current and Potential Uses of Immunocytokines as Cancer Immunotherapy. Antibodies. 2012; 1(2):149-171.
Sondel, Paul M.; Gillies, Stephen D. 2012. "Current and Potential Uses of Immunocytokines as Cancer Immunotherapy." Antibodies 1, no. 2: 149-171.