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Alpha Particle Emitter Radiolabeled Antibody for Metastatic Cancer: What Can We Learn from Heavy Ion Beam Radiobiology?
Division of Nuclear Medicine, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21231, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 May 2012; in revised form: 17 June 2012 / Accepted: 20 June 2012 / Published: 26 June 2012
Abstract: Alpha-particle emitter labeled monoclonal antibodies are being actively developed for treatment of metastatic cancer due to the high linear energy transfer (LET) and the resulting greater biological efficacy of alpha-emitters. Our knowledge of high LET particle radiobiology derives primarily from accelerated heavy ion beam studies. In heavy ion beam therapy of loco-regional tumors, the modulation of steep transition to very high LET peak as the particle approaches the end of its track (known as the Bragg peak) enables greater delivery of biologically potent radiation to the deep seated tumors while sparing normal tissues surrounding the tumor with the relatively low LET track segment part of the heavy ion beam. Moreover, fractionation of the heavy ion beam can further enhance the peak-to-plateau relative biological effectiveness (RBE) ratio. In contrast, internally delivered alpha particle radiopharmaceutical therapy lack the control of Bragg peak energy deposition and the dose rate is determined by the administered activity, alpha-emitter half-life and biological kinetics of the radiopharmaceutical. The therapeutic ratio of tumor to normal tissue is mainly achieved by tumor specific targeting of the carrier antibody. In this brief overview, we review the radiobiology of high LET radiations learned from ion beam studies and identify the features that are also applicable for the development of alpha-emitter labeled antibodies. The molecular mechanisms underlying DNA double strand break repair response to high LET radiation are also discussed.
Keywords: radiolabeled antibody; heavy ion beam; alpha particle; high LET; radiobiology; DNA repair
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Song, H.; Senthamizhchelvan, S.; Hobbs, R.F.; Sgouros, G. Alpha Particle Emitter Radiolabeled Antibody for Metastatic Cancer: What Can We Learn from Heavy Ion Beam Radiobiology? Antibodies 2012, 1, 124-148.
Song H, Senthamizhchelvan S, Hobbs RF, Sgouros G. Alpha Particle Emitter Radiolabeled Antibody for Metastatic Cancer: What Can We Learn from Heavy Ion Beam Radiobiology? Antibodies. 2012; 1(2):124-148.
Song, Hong; Senthamizhchelvan, Srinivasan; Hobbs, Robert F.; Sgouros, George. 2012. "Alpha Particle Emitter Radiolabeled Antibody for Metastatic Cancer: What Can We Learn from Heavy Ion Beam Radiobiology?" Antibodies 1, no. 2: 124-148.