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Land 2016, 5(4), 45; doi:10.3390/land5040045

Large-Scale Mapping of Tree-Community Composition as a Surrogate of Forest Degradation in Bornean Tropical Rain Forests

1
Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan
2
Japan Forest Technology Association, Tokyo, Japan
3
Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University, Aichi, Japan
4
WWF Indonesia, Kutai Barat, Kalimantan Timur, Indonesia
5
WWF Indonesia, Ujung Kulon, Banten, Indonesia
6
Forest Research Centre, Sabah Forestry Department, 90715 Sandakan, Sabah, Malaysia
7
Institute for Global Environmental Strategies, Kanagawa, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Jeffrey Sayer and Chris Margules
Received: 27 July 2016 / Revised: 1 December 2016 / Accepted: 6 December 2016 / Published: 11 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodiversity in Locally Managed Lands)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1948 KB, uploaded 14 December 2016]   |  

Abstract

Assessment of the progress of the Aichi Biodiversity Targets set by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the safeguarding of ecosystems from the perverse negative impacts caused by Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation Plus (REDD+) requires the development of spatiotemporally robust and sensitive indicators of biodiversity and ecosystem health. Recently, it has been proposed that tree-community composition based on count-plot surveys could serve as a robust, sensitive, and cost-effective indicator for forest intactness in Bornean logged-over rain forests. In this study, we developed an algorithm to map tree-community composition across the entire landscape based on Landsat imagery. We targeted six forest management units (FMUs), each of which ranged from 50,000 to 100,000 ha in area, covering a broad geographic range spanning the most area of Borneo. Approximately fifty 20 m-radius circular plots were established in each FMU, and the differences in tree-community composition at a genus level among plots were examined for trees with diameter at breast height ≥10 cm using an ordination with non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS). Subsequently, we developed a linear regression model based on Landsat metrics (e.g., reflectance value, vegetation indices and textures) to explain the nMDS axis-1 scores of the plots, and extrapolated the model to the landscape to establish a tree-community composition map in each FMU. The adjusted R2 values based on a cross-validation approach between the predicted and observed nMDS axis-1 scores indicated a close correlation, ranging from 0.54 to 0.69. Histograms of the frequency distributions of extrapolated nMDS axis-1 scores were derived from each map and used to quantitatively diagnose the forest intactness of the FMUs. Our study indicated that tree-community composition, which was reported as a robust indicator of forest intactness, could be mapped at a landscape level to quantitatively assess the spatial patterns of intactness in Bornean rain forests. Our approach can be used for large-scale assessments of tree diversity and forest intactness to monitor both the progress of Aichi Biodiversity Targets and the effectiveness of REDD+ biodiversity safeguards in production forests in the tropics. View Full-Text
Keywords: Aichi Biodiversity Targets; environmental safeguards; forest intactness; logged-over forests; REDD+; satellite remote sensing; tropical production forests Aichi Biodiversity Targets; environmental safeguards; forest intactness; logged-over forests; REDD+; satellite remote sensing; tropical production forests
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Fujiki, S.; Aoyagi, R.; Tanaka, A.; Imai, N.; Kusma, A.D.; Kurniawan, Y.; Lee, Y.F.; Sugau, J.B.; Pereira, J.T.; Samejima, H.; Kitayama, K. Large-Scale Mapping of Tree-Community Composition as a Surrogate of Forest Degradation in Bornean Tropical Rain Forests. Land 2016, 5, 45.

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