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Water 2017, 9(9), 706; doi:10.3390/w9090706

Local- and Plot-Scale Measurements of Soil Moisture: Time and Spatially Resolved Field Techniques in Plain, Hill and Mountain Sites

1
Interuniversity Department of Regional and Urban Studies and Planning (DIST), Polytechnic and University of Torino, viale Mattioli, 39, 10125 Torino, Italy
2
Institute for Agricultural and Earthmoving Machines, Italian National Research Council, Strada delle Cacce 73, 10135 Torino, Italy
3
Department of Cultural Heritage (dBC), University of Padova, 35127 Padova, Italy
4
Department of Geosciences, University of Padova, 35127 Padova, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 June 2017 / Revised: 8 September 2017 / Accepted: 11 September 2017 / Published: 15 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydro-Meteorological Monitoring)
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Abstract

Soil moisture measurement is essential to validate hydrological models and satellite data. In this work we provide an overview of different local and plot scale soil moisture measurement techniques applied in three different conditions in terms of altitude, land use, and soil type, namely a plain, a mountain meadow and a hilly vineyard. The main goal is to provide a synoptic view of techniques supported by practical case studies to show that in such different conditions it is possible to estimate a time and spatially resolved soil moisture by the same combination of instruments: contact-based methods (i.e., Time Domain Reflectometry—TDR, and two low frequency probes) for the time resolved, and hydro-geophysical minimally-invasive methods (i.e., Electromagnetic Induction—EMI, Ground Penetrating Radar—GPR, and the Electrical Resistivity Tomography—ERT) for the spatially resolved. Both long-term soil moisture measurements and spatially resolved measurement campaigns are discussed. Technical and operational measures are detailed to allow critical factors to be identified. View Full-Text
Keywords: soil moisture measurements; TDR; FDR Sensors; EMI; ERT; GPR; case studies soil moisture measurements; TDR; FDR Sensors; EMI; ERT; GPR; case studies
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Raffelli, G.; Previati, M.; Canone, D.; Gisolo, D.; Bevilacqua, I.; Capello, G.; Biddoccu, M.; Cavallo, E.; Deiana, R.; Cassiani, G.; Ferraris, S. Local- and Plot-Scale Measurements of Soil Moisture: Time and Spatially Resolved Field Techniques in Plain, Hill and Mountain Sites. Water 2017, 9, 706.

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