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Water 2017, 9(7), 500; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9070500

Characterization of Terrestrial Discharges into Coastal Waters with Thermal Imagery from a Hierarchical Monitoring Program

1
Department of Science and Technologies, University of Naples Parthenope, Centro Direzionale di Napoli, Isola C4, 80143 Napoli, Italy
2
CINFAI, (Consorzio Interuniversitario Nazionale per la Fisica delle Atmosfere e delle Idrosfere), 62029 Tolentino (MC), Italy
3
Department of Engineering, University of Naples Parthenope, Centro Direzionale di Napoli, Isola C4, 80143 Napoli, Italy
4
College of Engineering, University of Rhode Island, 102 Bliss Hall 1 Lippitt Rd, Kingston, RI 02881, USA
5
Department of Environmental Resources Engineering, College of Environmental Science and Forestry, SUNY, 402 Baker Labs, 1 Forestry Drive, Syracuse, NY 13244, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 April 2017 / Revised: 27 June 2017 / Accepted: 6 July 2017 / Published: 11 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Use of Remote Sensing in Hydrology)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [28588 KB, uploaded 11 July 2017]   |  

Abstract

Background: The hierarchical use of remotely-sensed imagery from satellites, and then proximally-sensed imagery from helicopter sand drones, can provide a range of spatial and temporal coverage that supports water quality monitoring of complex pollution scenarios. Methods: The study used hierarchical satellite-, helicopter-, and drone-acquired thermal imagery of coastal plumes ranging from 3 to 300 m, near Naples, Italy, and captured temporally- and spatially-overlapping in situ samples to correlate thermal and water quality parameters in each plume and the seawater. Results: In situ sampling determined that between-plume salinity varied by 37%, chlorophyll-a varied by 356%, dissolved oxygen varied by 81%, and turbidity varied by 232%. The radiometric temperature, Trad, for the plume area of interest had a correlation of 0.81 with salinity, 0.74 with chlorophyll-a, 0.98 with dissolved oxygen, and −0.61 with turbidity. Conclusion: This study established hierarchical use of remote and proximal thermal imagery can provide monitoring of complex coastal areas. View Full-Text
Keywords: remote sensing; hydrology; drones; environmental forensics remote sensing; hydrology; drones; environmental forensics
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Ferrara, C.; Lega, M.; Fusco, G.; Bishop, P.; Endreny, T. Characterization of Terrestrial Discharges into Coastal Waters with Thermal Imagery from a Hierarchical Monitoring Program. Water 2017, 9, 500.

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