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Water 2017, 9(7), 468; doi:10.3390/w9070468

Evidence for Submarine Groundwater Discharge into the Black Sea—Investigation of Two Dissimilar Geographical Settings

UFZ—Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig, Germany
UFZ—Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Theodor-Lieser-Str. 4, 06120 Halle, Germany
GeoEcoMar; Dimitrie Onciul Street 23-25, Bucharest 030167, Romania
Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University; Department of Hydrogeophysic and Geothermic, Chavchavadze Ave. 1, Tbilisi 0179, Georgia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 May 2017 / Revised: 20 June 2017 / Accepted: 22 June 2017 / Published: 27 June 2017
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The sustainable management of coastal marine environments requires a comprehensive understanding of the processes related to material transport from land to coastal sea. Besides surface water discharge (e.g., rivers and storm drains), submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) plays a key role since it provides a major pathway for solute and particulate transport of contaminants and nutrients, both having considerable potential to cause deterioration of the overall ecological status of coastal environments. The aim of the presented study was the investigation of SGD in two exemplary and dissimilar areas at the Black Sea coast, one in the west (Romania) and one in the east (Georgia). The approach included the assessment of the geological/geographical setting regarding the potential of SGD occurrence, the use of environmental tracer data (222Rn, δ18O, δ2H, salinity), and the evaluation of sea surface temperature patterns near the coastline using satellite data. Besides the individual site specific results, the study revealed that a combined evaluation of tracer data and satellite based information allows SGD localization with satisfying precision. A downscaling approach starting with large scale satellite data is generally recommended, continuing with medium scale tracer patterns and ending with local spot sampling. View Full-Text
Keywords: submarine groundwater discharge; SGD; Black Sea; tracer; satellite data submarine groundwater discharge; SGD; Black Sea; tracer; satellite data

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Schubert, M.; Knöller, K.; Stollberg, R.; Mallast, U.; Ruzsa, G.; Melikadze, G. Evidence for Submarine Groundwater Discharge into the Black Sea—Investigation of Two Dissimilar Geographical Settings. Water 2017, 9, 468.

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