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Water 2017, 9(7), 466; doi:10.3390/w9070466

Better-Fitted Probability of Hydraulic Conductivity for a Silty Clay Site and Its Effects on Solute Transport

State Key Laboratory of Simulation and Regulation of Water Cycle in River Basin, China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Beijing 100038, China
State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China
Hydraulic Research Institute of Jiangsu Province, Nanjing 210017, China
Water Resources Planning Bureau of Jiangsu Province, Nanjing 210029, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 April 2017 / Revised: 10 June 2017 / Accepted: 23 June 2017 / Published: 27 June 2017
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The heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity of a subsurface medium is vital to the groundwater flow and solute transport. Probability is efficient for characterizing and quantifying the field characterization of hydraulic conductivity. Compared with sandy mediums, silty clay is paid less attention to due to its low hydraulic conductivity. For long-term solute transport and seawater intrusion, the low-permeable medium is considered as a remarkably permeable medium. This study reports on a comprehensive investigation on the hydraulic conductivity field of the Ningchegu site, located east of Tianjin City of China. Four layers recognized by 52 boreholes, plain fill, continental silty clay, mud–silt clay and marine silty clay, were deposited from the top to the bottom. The hydraulic conductivities measured via permeameter tests ranged from 2 × 10−6 m/d to 1.6 × 10−1 m/d, which corresponded to the lithology of silty clay. The magnitude and the range of the hydraulic conductivity increased with the depth. Five probability distribution models were tested with the experimental probability, indicating that a Levy stable distribution was more matched than the log-normal, normal, Weibull or gamma distributions. A simple analytical model and a Monte Carlo technique were used to inspect the effect of the silty clay hydraulic conductivity field on the statistical behavior of the solute transport. The Levy stable distribution likely generates higher peak concentrations and lower peak times compared with the widely-used log-normal distribution. This consequently guides us in describing the transport of contaminations in subsurface mediums. View Full-Text
Keywords: Levy stable distribution; permeameter test; hydraulic conductivity; silty clay; solute transport Levy stable distribution; permeameter test; hydraulic conductivity; silty clay; solute transport

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Lu, C.; Qin, W.; Zhao, G.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, W. Better-Fitted Probability of Hydraulic Conductivity for a Silty Clay Site and Its Effects on Solute Transport. Water 2017, 9, 466.

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