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Water 2017, 9(3), 193; doi:10.3390/w9030193

Evaluating the Impact of Low Impact Development (LID) Practices on Water Quantity and Quality under Different Development Designs Using SWAT

1
National Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Rural Development Administration, Wanju, Jeollabuk-do 565-851, Korea
2
Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Texas A&M AgriLife Extension, Dallas, TX 75252, USA
3
Spatial Science Lab, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77845, USA
4
Blackland Research Center, Texas A&M AgriLife Research, Temple, TX 76502, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ataur Rahman
Received: 29 December 2016 / Revised: 1 March 2017 / Accepted: 2 March 2017 / Published: 7 March 2017
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Abstract

The effects of Low Impact Development (LID) practices on urban runoff and pollutants have proven to be positive in many studies. However, the effectiveness of LID practices can vary depending on different urban patterns. In the present study, the performance of LID practices was explored under three land uses with different urban forms: (1) a compact high-density urban form; (2) a conventional medium-density urban form; and (3) a conservational medium-density urban form. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used and model development was performed to reflect hydrologic behavior by the application of LID practices. Rain gardens, permeable pavements, and rainwater harvesting tanks were considered for simulations, and a modeling procedure for the representation of LID practices in SWAT was specifically illustrated in this context. Simulations were done for each land use, and the results were compared and evaluated. The application of LID practices demonstrated a decrease in surface runoff and pollutant loadings for all land uses, and different reductions were represented in response to the land uses with different urban forms on a watershed scale. In addition, the results among post-LIDs scenarios generally showed lower values for surface runoff and nitrate in the compact high-density urban land use and for total phosphorus in the conventional medium-density urban land use compared to the other land uses. We suggest effective strategies for implementing LID practices. View Full-Text
Keywords: effectiveness of LID practices; different urban designs; SWAT; model development; LID modeling effectiveness of LID practices; different urban designs; SWAT; model development; LID modeling
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Seo, M.; Jaber, F.; Srinivasan, R.; Jeong, J. Evaluating the Impact of Low Impact Development (LID) Practices on Water Quantity and Quality under Different Development Designs Using SWAT. Water 2017, 9, 193.

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