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Water 2017, 9(2), 94; doi:10.3390/w9020094

Small Scale Direct Potable Reuse (DPR) Project for a Remote Area

1
Institute for Sustainablity and Innovation, Victoria University, Melbourne 8001, Australia
2
Veolia, Bendigo Water Treatment Plant, Kangaroo Flat, Bendigo 3555, Australia
3
Australian Antarctic Division, 203 Channel Highway, Kingston 7050, Australia
4
Centre for Aquatic Pollution Identification and Management (CAPIM), School of Chemistry, University of Melbourne, Parkville 3010, Australia
5
School of Science, RMIT University, GPO Box 2476, Melbourne 3001, Australia
6
Faculty of Environmental Engineering, University of Kitakyushu, Kitakyushu 808-0135, Japan
7
Curtin Water Quality Research Centre, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth 6845, Australia
8
Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Melbourne, Parkville 3052, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Andreas N. Angelakis
Received: 8 December 2016 / Revised: 25 January 2017 / Accepted: 4 February 2017 / Published: 8 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Membranes for Water Treatment)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [5105 KB, uploaded 8 February 2017]   |  

Abstract

An Advanced Water Treatment Plant (AWTP) for potable water recycling in Davis Station Antarctica was trialed using secondary effluent at Selfs Point in Hobart, Tasmania, for nine months. The trials demonstrated the reliability of performance of a seven barrier treatment process consisting of ozonation, ceramic microfiltration (MF), biologically activated carbon, reverse osmosis, ultra-violet disinfection, calcite contactor and chlorination. The seven treatment barriers were required to meet the high log removal values (LRV) required for pathogens in small systems during disease outbreak, and on-line verification of process performance was required for operation with infrequent operator attention. On-line verification of pathogen LRVs, a low turbidity filtrate of approximately 0.1 NTU (Nephelometric Turbidity Unit), no long-term fouling and no requirement for clean-in-place (CIP) was achieved with the ceramic MF. A pressure decay test was also reliably implemented on the reverse osmosis system to achieve a 2 LRV for protozoa, and this barrier required only 2–3 CIP treatments each year. The ozonation process achieved 2 LRV for bacteria and virus with no requirement for an ozone residual, provided the ozone dose was >11.7 mg/L. Extensive screening using multi-residue gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) database methods that can screen for more than 1200 chemicals found that few chemicals pass through the barriers to the final product and rejected (discharge) water streams. The AWTP plant required 1.93 kWh/m3 when operated in the mode required for Davis Station and was predicted to require 1.27 kWh/m3 if scaled up to 10 ML/day. The AWTP will be shipped to Davis Station for further trials before possible implementation for water recycling. The process may have application in other small remote communities. View Full-Text
Keywords: potable water recycling; ceramic microfiltration; reverse osmosis; ozonation; disinfection by-products potable water recycling; ceramic microfiltration; reverse osmosis; ozonation; disinfection by-products
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, J.; Duke, M.C.; Northcott, K.; Packer, M.; Allinson, M.; Allinson, G.; Kadokami, K.; Tan, J.; Allard, S.; Croué, J.-P.; Knight, A.; Scales, P.J.; Gray, S.R. Small Scale Direct Potable Reuse (DPR) Project for a Remote Area. Water 2017, 9, 94.

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