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Water 2017, 9(1), 61; doi:10.3390/w9010061

Hydrogeochemistry and Genesis Analysis of Thermal and Mineral Springs in Arxan, Northeastern China

School of Water Resources and Environment, China University of Geosciences (Beijing), Beijing 100083, China
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Academic Editor: David Polya
Received: 26 September 2016 / Revised: 12 January 2017 / Accepted: 13 January 2017 / Published: 19 January 2017
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Abstract

In this work, the hydrogeochemistry and environmental isotopic compositions of thermal and mineral springs in Arxan, northeastern China, were used to assess the genesis of the thermal system hosted by deep-seated faults. The reservoir temperature was calculated using the mineral saturation index and geothermometers. According to isotopic analysis, the spring water was of meteoric origin. Sixteen springs in the Arxan geothermal system with outlet temperatures ranging from 10.9 to 41.0 °C were investigated. The water samples can be classified into four groups by using a Piper diagram. The aquifer in which the Group I and Group III samples were obtained was a shallow cold aquifer of the Jurassic system, which is related to the local groundwater system and contains HCO3–Ca·Na groundwater. The Group II and Group IV samples were recharged by deeply circulating meteoric water with HCO3–Na and HCO3·SO4–Na·Ca groundwater, respectively. The springs rise from the deep basement faults. The estimated thermal reservoir temperature is 50.9–68.8 °C, and the proportion of shallow cold water ranges from 54% to 87%. A conceptual flow model based on hydrogeochemical results and hydrogeological features is given to describe the geothermal system of the Arxan springs. View Full-Text
Keywords: thermal spring; mineral spring; hydrochemistry; genesis; Arxan thermal spring; mineral spring; hydrochemistry; genesis; Arxan
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Gu, X.; Zhang, Q.; Cui, Y.; Shao, J.; Xiao, Y.; Zhang, P.; Liu, J. Hydrogeochemistry and Genesis Analysis of Thermal and Mineral Springs in Arxan, Northeastern China. Water 2017, 9, 61.

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