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Water 2017, 9(1), 51; doi:10.3390/w9010051

Farm Typology in the Berambadi Watershed (India): Farming Systems Are Determined by Farm Size and Access to Groundwater

AGroécologie, Innovations & teRritoires (AGIR), Université de Toulouse, INP, INRA UMR 1248, F-31326 Castanet-Tolosan, France
Toulouse School of Economics, INRA UMR 1415 TSE-R, F-31000 Toulouse, France
Indian Institute of Sciences, Department of Civil Engineering, Bangalore 560012, India
Indo-French Cell for Water Sciences, IRD-IISc, Bangalore 560012, India
Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment (ATREE), Bangalore 560064, India
Sol Agro et hydrosystème Spatialisation (SAS), INRA, Agrocampus Ouest, UMR 1069, F-35042 Rennes, France
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Franco Salerno
Received: 3 November 2016 / Revised: 12 December 2016 / Accepted: 10 January 2017 / Published: 13 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adaptation Strategies to Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3486 KB, uploaded 13 January 2017]   |  


Farmers’ production decisions and agricultural practices directly and indirectly influence the quantity and quality of natural resources, some being depleted common resources such as groundwater. Representing farming systems while accounting for their flexibility is needed to evaluate targeted, regional water management policies. Farmers’ decisions regarding investing in irrigation and adopting cropping systems are inherently dynamic and must adapt to changes in climate and agronomic, economic and social, and institutional, conditions. To represent this diversity, we developed a typology of Indian farmers from a survey of 684 farms in Berambadi, an agricultural watershed in southern India (state of Karnataka). The survey provided information on farm structure, the cropping system and farm practices, water management for irrigation, and economic performances of the farm. Descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis (Multiple Correspondence Analysis and Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering) were used to analyze relationships between observed factors and establish the farm typology. We identified three main types of farms: (1) large diversified and productivist farms; (2) small and marginal rainfed farms, and (3) small irrigated marketing farms. This typology represents the heterogeneity of farms in the Berambadi watershed. View Full-Text
Keywords: farm typology; Multiple Correspondence Analysis; Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering; Berambadi watershed farm typology; Multiple Correspondence Analysis; Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering; Berambadi watershed

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Robert, M.; Thomas, A.; Sekhar, M.; Badiger, S.; Ruiz, L.; Willaume, M.; Leenhardt, D.; Bergez, J.-E. Farm Typology in the Berambadi Watershed (India): Farming Systems Are Determined by Farm Size and Access to Groundwater. Water 2017, 9, 51.

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