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Water 2016, 8(9), 406; doi:10.3390/w8090406

Strategic Framework for Sustainable Management of Drainage Systems in Semi-Arid Cities: An Iraqi Case Study

1
Civil Engineering Research Group, School of Computing, Science and Engineering, The University of Salford, Newton Building, Salford M5 4WT, UK
2
Division of Water Resources Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, Lund 221 00, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Athanasios Loukas
Received: 20 June 2016 / Revised: 8 September 2016 / Accepted: 12 September 2016 / Published: 19 September 2016
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Abstract

For the purpose of this paper, Erbil city, located in the northern part of Iraq, has been chosen as a representative case study for a large number of cities, particularly in semi-arid areas, lacking sustainable drainage systems (SuDS). The study assesses (a) the role of SuDS as a measure in areas with a water shortage; (b) water scarcity in decision-making processes; (c) the lack of legislation to implement SuDS; (d) the adverse effects of climate change on the urban drainage system; and (e) the effects of an increased population on SuDS implementation. An integrated methodology that incorporates a self-administrated questionnaire, workshops, face-to-face communication and interviews, as well as electronic media interactions, were used to achieve the objectives. A generic platform that consists of thirteen pillars, supporting the short to long-term national policies and strategies towards a sustainable urban drainage system, has been developed. Results showed that environmental laws need to be introduced. Findings also indicate that a growing population, which is partly due to an increase of internally displaced people, is a major challenge to an early application of SuDS, due to a rise in land demand and a lack of financial resources. View Full-Text
Keywords: climate change; flooding; legislation; population growth; sanitation; socio-economic; sustainable framework; sustainable drainage system; urban inundation; urban ecology climate change; flooding; legislation; population growth; sanitation; socio-economic; sustainable framework; sustainable drainage system; urban inundation; urban ecology
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Nanekely, M.; Scholz, M.; Al-Faraj, F. Strategic Framework for Sustainable Management of Drainage Systems in Semi-Arid Cities: An Iraqi Case Study. Water 2016, 8, 406.

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