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Water 2016, 8(6), 219; doi:10.3390/w8060219

Water Related Health Problems in Central Asia—A Review

1
Department of Public Health, Karaganda State Medical University, Gogol Street 40, Karaganda 100008, Kazakhstan
2
Department of Water Resources Engineering & Center for Middle Eastern Studies, Lund University, Box 118, Lund SE-221 00, Sweden
3
MROO “Educational-health Center”, Petrova str. 30/1, 13, Astana 010000, Kazakhstan
4
Department of Professional Training and Protection of the Environment, Pavlodar State University, Lomov Street 64, Pavlodar 140008, Kazakhstan
5
Department of Surgical Disease, Karaganda State Medical University, Gogol Street 40, Karaganda 100008, Kazakhstan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Marc Henry
Received: 17 February 2016 / Revised: 19 May 2016 / Accepted: 20 May 2016 / Published: 24 May 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [5186 KB, uploaded 24 May 2016]   |  

Abstract

The present paper provides an extensive literature review on water related health issues in Central Asia. Even though the per capita amount of available freshwater is substantial in all Central Asian states the uneven distribution in time and space creates problems for water availability. Due to this, the Central Asian economies are developing under increasing water deficiency. The degradation of water supply systems and sewage treatment plants is often severe leading to potentially high water loss rates and inadequate accessibility to safe water supply. In this context, rural areas are the most affected. Low tariffs in combination with absent metering and low collection rates for water fees mean that operation and maintenance costs for basic services of water supply and sanitation are not covered. Unsafe water supply contains both microbiological and non-microbiological contaminants. Helminthiasis and intestinal protozoa infections are of considerable public health importance in Central Asia. Agricultural and industrial pollution is especially affecting downstream areas of Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers. In large areas copper, zinc, and chromium concentrations in water exceed maximum permissible concentration. Thus, there is an urgent need to strengthen the environmental monitoring system. Small-scale water supply and sanitation systems need to be developed in line with more efficient public spending on these. View Full-Text
Keywords: Central Asia; water supply; public health; safe drinking water; sanitation; pollution Central Asia; water supply; public health; safe drinking water; sanitation; pollution
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Bekturganov, Z.; Tussupova, K.; Berndtsson, R.; Sharapatova, N.; Aryngazin, K.; Zhanasova, M. Water Related Health Problems in Central Asia—A Review. Water 2016, 8, 219.

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