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Water 2016, 8(5), 213; doi:10.3390/w8050213

Water Availability of São Francisco River Basin Based on a Space-Borne Geodetic Sensor

1
School of Earth Sciences and Engineering, Hohai University, Jiangning Campus, Nanjing 211100, China
2
Department of Geomatic Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Private Mail Box, Kwmasi, Ghana
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Athanasios Loukas
Received: 3 March 2016 / Revised: 10 May 2016 / Accepted: 17 May 2016 / Published: 20 May 2016
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Abstract

Brazil has recently experienced one of its worst droughts in the last 80 years, with wide-ranging consequences for water supply restrictions, energy rationing, and agricultural losses. Northeast and Southeast Brazil, which share the São Francisco River basin (SFRB), have experienced serious precipitation reduction since 2011. We used terrestrial water-storage (TWS) fields, inverted from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission measurements, to assess and quantify the ongoing drought over the SFRB. We found a water loss rate of 3.30 km3/year over the time-span of April 2002 to March 2015. In addition, the TWS drought index (TWSDI) showed the extension of the recent drought that has jeopardized the SFRB since January 2012, and which reached its maximum in July 2015 (the end of TWS time series). In this sense there seems to be a linkage between the TWSDI (wetness/dryness) and the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), in terms of the wavelet coherence, at the semi-annual and biennial bands, suggesting a relationship between the two. While acknowledging that further investigation is needed, we believe that our findings should contribute to the water management policies by quantifying the impact of this drought event over the SFRB. View Full-Text
Keywords: drought; GRACE; terrestrial water-storage; water deficit; wavelet coherence drought; GRACE; terrestrial water-storage; water deficit; wavelet coherence
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Sun, T.; Ferreira, V.G.; He, X.; Andam-Akorful, S.A. Water Availability of São Francisco River Basin Based on a Space-Borne Geodetic Sensor. Water 2016, 8, 213.

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