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Water 2016, 8(5), 205; doi:10.3390/w8050205

Hydrological Evaluation of Lake Chad Basin Using Space Borne and Hydrological Model Observations

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Dongguk University, Seoul 04620, Korea
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Yingkui Li and Michael A. Urban
Received: 17 February 2016 / Revised: 2 May 2016 / Accepted: 9 May 2016 / Published: 17 May 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resource Variability and Climate Change)
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Abstract

Sustainable water resource management requires the assessment of hydrological changes in response to climate fluctuations and anthropogenic activities in any given area. A quantitative estimation of water balance entities is important to understand the variations within a basin. Water resources in remote areas with little infrastructure and technological knowhow suffer from poor documentation, rendering water management difficult and unreliable. This study analyzes the changes in the hydrological behavior of the Lake Chad basin with extreme climatic and environmental conditions that hinder the collection of field observations. Total water storage (TWS) from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), lake level variations from satellite altimetry, and water fluxes and soil moisture from Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) were used to study the spatiotemporal variability of the hydrological parameters of the Lake Chad basin. The estimated TWS varies in a similar pattern as the lake water level. TWS in the basin area is governed by the lake’s surface water. The subsurface water volume changes were derived by combining the altimetric lake volume with the TWS over the drainage basin. The results were compared with groundwater outputs from WaterGAP Global Hydrology Model (WGHM), with both showing a somewhat similar pattern. These results could provide an insight to the availability of water resources in the Lake Chad basin for current and future management purposes. View Full-Text
Keywords: GRACE; Lake Chad basin; GLDAS; WGHM; groundwater; altimetry; hydrological changes GRACE; Lake Chad basin; GLDAS; WGHM; groundwater; altimetry; hydrological changes
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Buma, W.G.; Lee, S.-I.; Seo, J.Y. Hydrological Evaluation of Lake Chad Basin Using Space Borne and Hydrological Model Observations. Water 2016, 8, 205.

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