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Water 2016, 8(3), 99; doi:10.3390/w8030099

Spatio-Temporal Variability in Benthic Macroinvertebrate Communities in Headwater Streams in South Korea

1
Freshwater Biodiversity Research Division, Nakdonggang National Institute of Biological Resources, Gyeongsangbuk-do 37242, Korea
2
Forest Ecology Division, National Institute of Forest Science, Seoul 02455, Korea
3
Department of Biology, Pusan National University, Busan 46241, Korea
4
Department of Life and Nanopharmaceutical Sciences, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Korea
5
Department of Biology, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Kevin Strychar
Received: 1 November 2015 / Revised: 2 March 2016 / Accepted: 8 March 2016 / Published: 12 March 2016
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Abstract

Comprehensive research on the structural and functional variability of benthic macroinvertebrate communities within headwater streams is limited, despite the fact that the majority of streams within a watershed are headwater streams that form the primary link between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Therefore, we investigated the structure and function of benthic macroinvertebrate communities in four headwater streams at two different spatial scales (i.e., sampling sites (i.e., reaches) >samples (i.e., riffles)) over three seasons (i.e., spring, summer and autumn) of the year. Community indices, functional feeding guilds and habit trait guilds varied significantly depending on the seasons rather than on sites in two-way ANOVA based on spatial (i.e., sampling sites) and seasonal effects in each headwater stream. Non-metric multidimensional scaling analyses showed the differences between communities according to the considered spatial and temporal scales. At the individual stream scale, the differences between samples followed seasonal variation more than spatial differences. Site differences became more important when performing an ordination within a single season (i.e., spring, summer, and autumn). Continued research and monitoring employing both multidisciplinary and multidimensional approaches are required to maintain macroinvertebrate diversity within headwater streams. View Full-Text
Keywords: headwater stream; macroinvertebrate; non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMS); rarefaction; microhabitats; heterogeneity; functional feeding guilds (FFGs); habit trait guilds (HTGs) headwater stream; macroinvertebrate; non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMS); rarefaction; microhabitats; heterogeneity; functional feeding guilds (FFGs); habit trait guilds (HTGs)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Bae, M.-J.; Chun, J.H.; Chon, T.-S.; Park, Y.-S. Spatio-Temporal Variability in Benthic Macroinvertebrate Communities in Headwater Streams in South Korea. Water 2016, 8, 99.

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