Water Use Patterns in Vietnamese Hotels: Modeling Toilet and Shower Usage
AbstractWater saving is a key issue in rapidly developing countries, such as Vietnam, that face various water resource management challenges. This study investigated water-use patterns in a hotel in Ho Chi Minh City in Vietnam. It aimed to quantify the efficiency of water-saving devices through modeling toilet and shower usage patterns, including water consumption. The shift in hourly consumption of cold and hot water was also identified. Analysis revealed that, on average, a full toilet flush occurs 3.3 times/day, a half flush 3.0 times/day, water consumption due to shower usage is 48.1 L/day, showering time is 7.3 min/day and the shower water temperature is 37.7 °C. Shifting levels of hot and cold water use revealed high activity in the morning time and that there are two peaks, occurring in the morning and at night. View Full-Text
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Toyosada, K.; Otani, T.; Shimizu, Y. Water Use Patterns in Vietnamese Hotels: Modeling Toilet and Shower Usage. Water 2016, 8, 85.
Toyosada K, Otani T, Shimizu Y. Water Use Patterns in Vietnamese Hotels: Modeling Toilet and Shower Usage. Water. 2016; 8(3):85.Chicago/Turabian Style
Toyosada, Kanako; Otani, Takayuki; Shimizu, Yasutoshi. 2016. "Water Use Patterns in Vietnamese Hotels: Modeling Toilet and Shower Usage." Water 8, no. 3: 85.
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