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Water 2016, 8(3), 85; doi:10.3390/w8030085

Water Use Patterns in Vietnamese Hotels: Modeling Toilet and Shower Usage

1
Department of Environmental Science, International College of Arts and Science, Fukuoka Women’s University, 1-1-1, Kasumigaoka, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka City 813-8529, Japan
2
ESG Promotion Department, TOTO Ltd., 2-1-1, Nakashima, Kokurakita-ku, Kitakyushu City 802-8601, Japan
3
Water and Lifestyle Research Laboratory, 31-3, Munakata, Fukuoka 811-4141, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Enedir Ghisi
Received: 24 July 2015 / Revised: 2 February 2016 / Accepted: 14 February 2016 / Published: 4 March 2016
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Abstract

Water saving is a key issue in rapidly developing countries, such as Vietnam, that face various water resource management challenges. This study investigated water-use patterns in a hotel in Ho Chi Minh City in Vietnam. It aimed to quantify the efficiency of water-saving devices through modeling toilet and shower usage patterns, including water consumption. The shift in hourly consumption of cold and hot water was also identified. Analysis revealed that, on average, a full toilet flush occurs 3.3 times/day, a half flush 3.0 times/day, water consumption due to shower usage is 48.1 L/day, showering time is 7.3 min/day and the shower water temperature is 37.7 °C. Shifting levels of hot and cold water use revealed high activity in the morning time and that there are two peaks, occurring in the morning and at night. View Full-Text
Keywords: water-saving equipment; water usage; vietnamese hotel water-saving equipment; water usage; vietnamese hotel
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Toyosada, K.; Otani, T.; Shimizu, Y. Water Use Patterns in Vietnamese Hotels: Modeling Toilet and Shower Usage. Water 2016, 8, 85.

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