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Water 2016, 8(3), 70; doi:10.3390/w8030070

Spatial and Temporal Variations of Streambed Vertical Hydraulic Conductivity in the Weihe River, China

1
College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Northwest University, Xi’an 710027, China
2
State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on the Loess Plateau, Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, CAS & MWR, Yangling 712100, China
3
Chongqing Academy of Environmental Science, Chongqing 401147, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Karl-Erich Lindenschmidt and Clelia Marti
Received: 4 December 2015 / Revised: 1 February 2016 / Accepted: 16 February 2016 / Published: 24 February 2016
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Abstract

This study demonstrates the spatial and temporal variations of streambed vertical hydraulic conductivity Kv from October 2011 to November 2014 along the Weihe River, the largest tributary of the Yellow River. The streambed Kv values of a total number of 385 locations from five test sites were estimated on the basis of in situ falling-head standpipe permeameter tests. The difference of Kv values for all test locations reaches five orders of magnitude with a range from 5.87E-04 to 61.3 m/d and a median value of 1.62E-01 m/d. The streambed Kv values are neither normally nor log-normally distributed, but display significant spatial variability among the five test sites. The highest Kv values occur at the site with mainly sandy sediment, while the Kv values at the other four sites with mainly silt-clay sediment are relatively close and have less variability than those at the sandy sediment site. The median Kv values from all of the sites exhibit no statistically significant temporal trends. However, the median Kv values indeed show temporal variations that might be influenced by changes in silt-clay content of the sediment, especially for the sandy sediment site and the combined data from all sites. Weak evidence demonstrates that streambed Kv values decrease with depth. View Full-Text
Keywords: streambed vertical hydraulic conductivity; spatial and temporal variation; statistical distribution; the Weihe River streambed vertical hydraulic conductivity; spatial and temporal variation; statistical distribution; the Weihe River
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, L.; Song, J.; Zhang, B.; Guo, H.; Jiang, W.; Wen, M.; Zhang, G. Spatial and Temporal Variations of Streambed Vertical Hydraulic Conductivity in the Weihe River, China. Water 2016, 8, 70.

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