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Water 2016, 8(3), 104; doi:10.3390/w8030104

Impact of Demographic Growth on Seawater Intrusion: Case of the Tripoli Aquifer, Lebanon

1
CESBIO (Centre d’Etudes Spatiales de la Biosphère), UMR (CNRS, CNES, IRD, UPS), Toulouse 31401, France
2
LaMA (laboratoire de mathématique et Application), Université Libanaise, Tripoli 1300, Lebanon
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Richard Smardon
Received: 24 July 2015 / Revised: 29 January 2016 / Accepted: 9 March 2016 / Published: 16 March 2016
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Abstract

Water resources in Mediterranean coastal aquifers are subject to overexploitation leading to an increase in seawater intrusion. Based on the United Nations Environment Program, “UNEP” 75% of people in the world will live in coastal cities by 2020. This is having a major impact on the salinization process. This paper deals with the impact of demographic evolution on seawater intrusion and considers the case of the lower Tripoli aquifer in Lebanon. A numerical model based on the sharp interface approach is implemented using “Freefem++” to access the seawater intrusion. The model is verified against an analytic and a numerical solution. It is calibrated and validated against hydraulic head observations (RMSD = 0.819 m). Then several scenarios of pumping are applied based on available demographic growth rates to quantify the impact on seawater intrusion. The projection scenarios show that if the current pumping rates are maintained while maintaining the demographic evolution, the pumping wells will be salinized within 2 decades in the highly populated areas. View Full-Text
Keywords: seawater intrusion; Tripoli; freefem++; sharp interface; numerical simulations; scenarios; demographic impact seawater intrusion; Tripoli; freefem++; sharp interface; numerical simulations; scenarios; demographic impact
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kalaoun, O.; Al Bitar, A.; Gastellu-Etchegorry, J.-P.; Jazar, M. Impact of Demographic Growth on Seawater Intrusion: Case of the Tripoli Aquifer, Lebanon. Water 2016, 8, 104.

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