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Water 2016, 8(11), 544; doi:10.3390/w8110544

National Large-Scale Wetland Creation in Agricultural Areas—Potential versus Realized Effects on Nutrient Transports

1
RLAS/Wetland Research Centre, Halmstad University, 301 18 Halmstad, Sweden
2
IFM Biology, Linköping University, 581 83 Linköping, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Richard C. Smardon
Received: 31 October 2016 / Revised: 11 November 2016 / Accepted: 16 November 2016 / Published: 19 November 2016
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Abstract

During 2007–2013, the Swedish Board of Agriculture granted support within a national program to about 1000 wetlands, corresponding to a 5300-hectare wetland area, with the dual goal to remove nutrients from water and to improve biodiversity in agricultural landscapes. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects on nutrient transports that are realized within the national program to what could be obtained with the same area of wetlands if location and design of wetlands were optimized. In single, highly nutrient-loaded wetlands, a removal of around 1000 kg nitrogen and 100 kg phosphorus per hectare wetland area and year was estimated from monitoring data. Statistical models were developed to estimate the overall nutrient removal effects of wetlands created within the national program. Depending on model, the effect of the national program as a whole was estimated to between 27 and 38 kg nitrogen and between 2.7 and 4.5 kg phosphorus per hectare created wetland area and year. Comparison of what is achieved in individual wetlands to what was achieved in the national program indicates that nutrient removal effects could be increased substantially in future wetland programs by emphasising location and design of wetlands. View Full-Text
Keywords: constructed wetlands; nitrogen; phosphorus; removal; retention; catchments constructed wetlands; nitrogen; phosphorus; removal; retention; catchments
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Weisner, S.E.B.; Johannesson, K.; Thiere, G.; Svengren, H.; Ehde, P.M.; Tonderski, K.S. National Large-Scale Wetland Creation in Agricultural Areas—Potential versus Realized Effects on Nutrient Transports. Water 2016, 8, 544.

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