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Water 2016, 8(11), 532; doi:10.3390/w8110532

Influence of Inorganic Ions and Organic Substances on the Degradation of Pharmaceutical Compound in Water Matrix

Faculty of Energy and Environmental Engineering, Silesian University of Technology, Konarskiego 18, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
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Academic Editor: Fabio Masi
Received: 18 September 2016 / Revised: 24 October 2016 / Accepted: 8 November 2016 / Published: 15 November 2016
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Abstract

The paper determined the influence of inorganic substances and high-molecular organic compounds on the decomposition of diclofenac, ibuprofen, and carbamazepine in the process of photocatalysis conducted with the presence of Titanium dioxide (TiO2). It was determined that the presence of such ions as CO 3 2 , HCO 3 , HPO 4 2 as well as SO 4 2 inhibited the decomposition of carbamazepine, whereas the efficiency of diclofenac degradation was decreased only by the presence of CO 3 2 and HCO 3 anions. In case of ibuprofen sodium salt (IBU), all investigated anions influenced the increase in its decomposition rate. The process of pharmaceutical photooxidation conducted in suspensions with Al3+ and Fe3+ cations was characterized by a significantly decreased efficiency when compared to the solution deprived of inorganic compounds. The addition of Ca2+, Mg2+ and NH4+ affected the increase of reaction rate constant value of diclofenac and ibuprofen decomposition. On the other hand, high molecular organic compounds present in the model effluent additionally catalysed the degradation process of pharmaceutical compounds and constituted an additional sorbent that enabled to decrease their concentration. Toxicological analysis conducted in deionized water with pharmaceutical compounds’ patterns proved the production of by-products from oxidation and/or reduction of micropollutants, which was not observed for model effluent irradiation. View Full-Text
Keywords: pharmaceuticals; photocatalysis; cations and anions; organic compounds; toxicological assessment pharmaceuticals; photocatalysis; cations and anions; organic compounds; toxicological assessment
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kudlek, E.; Dudziak, M.; Bohdziewicz, J. Influence of Inorganic Ions and Organic Substances on the Degradation of Pharmaceutical Compound in Water Matrix. Water 2016, 8, 532.

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