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Water 2016, 8(11), 527; doi:10.3390/w8110527

Lake Evaporation in a Hyper-Arid Environment, Northwest of China—Measurement and Estimation

1
Key Laboratory of Water Cycle & Related Land Surface Processes, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 11A, Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101, China
2
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Y. Jun Xu
Received: 26 September 2016 / Revised: 2 November 2016 / Accepted: 7 November 2016 / Published: 12 November 2016
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Abstract

Lake evaporation is a critical component of the hydrological cycle. Quantifying lake evaporation in hyper-arid regions by measurement and estimation can both provide reliable potential evaporation (ET0) reference and promote a deeper understanding of the regional hydrological process and its response towards changing climate. We placed a floating E601 evaporation pan on East Juyan Lake, which is representative of arid regions’ terminal lakes, to measure daily evaporation and conducted simultaneous bankside synoptic observation during the growing season of 2013–2015. A semi-empirical evaporation model derived from Dalton model was parameterized and validated with measured data. The model was then used to estimate lake evaporation during 2002–2015. According to in situ measurements, maximum, minimum and mean lake evaporation were 8.1, 3.7 and 6.5 mm/day, and growing season evaporation was 1183.3 mm (~80% of the annual amount). Adding up non-growing season evaporation that we converted from φ20 pan evaporation at Ejina weather station, the annual mean lake evaporation, 1471.3 mm, was representative of lower Heihe River’s ET0. Model inter-comparison implied our model performed well both in simplicity and accuracy and has potential utilization in a data-sparse area. In 2002–2015, estimated mean daily evaporation was 6.5 mm/day and growing season evaporation was 1233.7 mm. Trend analysis of estimated evaporation proved the evaporation paradox’s existence in this hyper-arid region and validated complementary relationship theory’s adaptability. View Full-Text
Keywords: lake evaporation measurement; evaporation model; floating E601 evaporation pan; lake evaporation time series; Lower Heihe River; East Juyan Lake lake evaporation measurement; evaporation model; floating E601 evaporation pan; lake evaporation time series; Lower Heihe River; East Juyan Lake
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Liu, X.; Yu, J.; Wang, P.; Zhang, Y.; Du, C. Lake Evaporation in a Hyper-Arid Environment, Northwest of China—Measurement and Estimation. Water 2016, 8, 527.

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