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Water 2016, 8(11), 485; doi:10.3390/w8110485

Analysis of the Impacts of Man-Made Features on the Stationarity and Dependence of Monthly Mean Maximum and Minimum Water Levels in the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River of North America

Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Quebec at Trois-Rivières, 3351 Boulevard des Forges, Trois-Rivières, QC G9A 5H7, Canada
Academic Editor: Y. Jun Xu
Received: 23 June 2016 / Revised: 18 October 2016 / Accepted: 21 October 2016 / Published: 27 October 2016
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Abstract

Various manmade features (diversions, dredging, regulation, etc.) have affected water levels in the Great Lakes and their outlets since the 19th century. The goal of this study is to analyze the impacts of such features on the stationarity and dependence between monthly mean maximum and minimum water levels in the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River from 1919 to 2012. As far as stationarity is concerned, the Lombard method brought out shifts in mean and variance values of monthly mean water levels in Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence River related to regulation of these waterbodies in the wake of the digging of the St. Lawrence Seaway in the mid-1950s. Water level shifts in the other lakes are linked to climate variability. As for the dependence between water levels, the copula method revealed a change in dependence mainly between Lakes Erie and Ontario following regulation of monthly mean maximum and minimum water levels in the latter. The impacts of manmade features primarily affected the temporal variability of monthly mean water levels in Lake Ontario. View Full-Text
Keywords: monthly mean maximum and minimum water levels; stationarity; dependence; Lombard method; copula; Great Lakes; St. Lawrence monthly mean maximum and minimum water levels; stationarity; dependence; Lombard method; copula; Great Lakes; St. Lawrence
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MDPI and ACS Style

Assani, A.A. Analysis of the Impacts of Man-Made Features on the Stationarity and Dependence of Monthly Mean Maximum and Minimum Water Levels in the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River of North America. Water 2016, 8, 485.

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