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Water 2016, 8(10), 435; doi:10.3390/w8100435

Redox Dynamics and Oxygen Reduction Rates of Infiltrating Urban Stormwater beneath Low Impact Development (LID)

Department of Earth & Climate Sciences, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA 94132, USA
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Received: 30 May 2016 / Accepted: 23 September 2016 / Published: 4 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Drainage and Urban Stormwater Management)
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Abstract

Low impact development (LID) best management practices (BMPs) collect, infiltrate, and treat stormwater runoff, and increase recharge to aquifers. Understanding the controls on reduction/oxidation (redox) conditions within LID BMPs is important for groundwater management because outflow from some LID BMPs can recharge aquifers and affect groundwater quality. Here we evaluate redox conditions of urban stormwater runoff in a LID infiltration trench in San Francisco, California, and quantify the relation between water saturation (%) and temperature (◦C) and resulting dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations, redox dynamics, and O2 reduction rates. The DO fluctuations ha ve an inverse response to the duration of saturation of the trench. Anoxic (<0.5 mg/L) conditions often occurred within hours of stormwater events and persisted from a few hours to two days, which indicate that microbial respiration can be a limiting factor for DO. Temperature of stormwater runoff was not a statistically significant control on DO. The estimated O2 reduction rate is 0.003mg·L-1·min-1, which is two to five orders of magnitude higher than in groundwater from previous studies. Higher rates of O2 reduction are a function of the more toxic and organic-rich stormwater runoff that drives faster microbial O2 reduction. Our findings have important implications for the design of infiltration trenches and other LID BMPs to achieve desired redox conditions for infiltrating stormwater toward minimizing groundwater contamination. View Full-Text
Keywords: stormwater; low impact development (LID); redox; oxygen reduction; recharge; urban hydrogeology stormwater; low impact development (LID); redox; oxygen reduction; recharge; urban hydrogeology
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Danfoura, M.N.; Gurdak, J.J. Redox Dynamics and Oxygen Reduction Rates of Infiltrating Urban Stormwater beneath Low Impact Development (LID). Water 2016, 8, 435.

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