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Water 2016, 8(1), 25;

Hydraulic Transients Caused by Air Expulsion During Rapid Filling of Undulating Pipelines

Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Ambientale, del Territorio, Edile e di Chimica, Politecnico di Bari, Bari 70125, Italy
Dipartimento di Ingegneria, Università degli Studi del Sannio, Benevento 82100, Italy
Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Edile e Ambientale, Università degli Studi di Napoli “Federico II”, Napoli 80125, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Andreas N. Angelakis
Received: 15 October 2015 / Revised: 11 January 2016 / Accepted: 12 January 2016 / Published: 19 January 2016
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One of the main issues arising during the rapid filling of a pipeline is the pressure transient which originates after the entrapped air has been expelled at the air release valve. Because of the difference in density between water and air, a pressure transient originates at the impact of the water column. Many authors have analyzed the problem, both from the theoretical and the experimental standpoint. Nevertheless, mainly vertical or horizontal pipelines have been analyzed, whereas in real field applications, the pipe profile is a sequence of ascending and descending pipes, with air release/vacuum valves at high points. To overcome lack of knowledge regarding this latter case, laboratory experiments were carried out to simulate the filling of an undulating pipeline, initially empty at atmospheric pressure. The pipe profile has a high point where an orifice is installed for air venting, so as to simulate the air release valve at intermediate high point of a supply pipeline. In the experiments, the diameter of the orifice and the opening degree of both upstream and downstream valves were varied, in order to analyze their effect on the pressure transient. The experiments were also carried out with a longer descending pipe, in order to assess the effects on the pressure surge of the air volume downstream of the orifice. View Full-Text
Keywords: air valve; hydraulic transients; entrapped air; experimental data; pipes system air valve; hydraulic transients; entrapped air; experimental data; pipes system

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Apollonio, C.; Balacco, G.; Fontana, N.; Giugni, M.; Marini, G.; Piccinni, A.F. Hydraulic Transients Caused by Air Expulsion During Rapid Filling of Undulating Pipelines. Water 2016, 8, 25.

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