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Water 2015, 7(9), 4848-4857; doi:10.3390/w7094848

Reclaimed Water Use in Biofuel Production

1
Dpto Producción Animal, Grupo Investigación GEOVOL, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Fac. Veterinaria, Arucas 35013, Spain
2
Laboratorio Agroalimentario y Fitopatológico del Cabildo de Gran Canaria (Agri-Food and Phytopathological Laboratory)
3
Departamento de Biología Animal, Edafología y Geología, Universidad de La Laguna, San Cristóbal de La Laguna 38200, Spain
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ashok K. Chapagain
Received: 13 April 2015 / Revised: 7 July 2015 / Accepted: 6 August 2015 / Published: 4 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Study, Development and Management of Water in Volcanic Areas)
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Abstract

Jatropha curcas L., a toxic species that does not interfere with the food chain, produces biodiesel of better environmental quality than mineral oils. However, in order to cultivate it sustainably, it is necessary to optimize the limited resources used, mainly water and soil. Therefore, in arid areas, it is necessary to cultivate under intensive conditions, irrigate with reclaimed water and cut production costs. To optimize water consumption, partial root-zone drying (PRD), which keeps a part of the root system dry, was used. This water management strategy, employed successfully in other oil crops, yielded less fruit per bunch, but more fruit bunches per plant. This fact will probably allow to establish higher planting density and, consequently, higher productivity per surface unit. This is one of the few available options for improving profitability as production per tree is stable (1.25 kg seed plant−1 year−1 for the most productive trees, with excellent climate and soil, and no limitations water use). A high percentage of fruit lying on the ground (24%) and non-uniform timing in fruit production (except some specimens) greatly hinder its mechanization. Although this crop’s environmental and socio-economic benefits are not taken into account, it is very difficult, with only the calculated water consumption (15.5 m3 water per L of oil or 5.6 m3 water per L of oil according to our best estimations), to consider it a profitable option. View Full-Text
Keywords: Jatropha curcas; water consumption coefficient; partial root-zone drying (PRD); biodiesel; subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) Jatropha curcas; water consumption coefficient; partial root-zone drying (PRD); biodiesel; subsurface drip irrigation (SDI)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Palacios-Diaz, M.P.; Mendoza-Grimón, V.; Brito, I.H.; Fernández-Vera, J.R.; Hernández-Moreno, J.M. Reclaimed Water Use in Biofuel Production. Water 2015, 7, 4848-4857.

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