Next Article in Journal
Reconstruction of Lake Level Changes of Groundwater-Fed Lakes in Northeastern Germany Using RapidEye Time Series
Previous Article in Journal
Daily Runoff Forecasting Model Based on ANN and Data Preprocessing Techniques
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Water 2015, 7(8), 4161-4174;

Comparison of the Physical Properties of Showers that the Satisfaction of Shower Feeling among Users in Three Asian Countries

Products R & D Department, TOTO LTD, 2-8-1, Honson, Chigasaki-City 2538577, Japan
Faculty of Textile Science & Technology, Shinshu University, 3-15-1, Tokida, Ueda-City 3868567, Japan
Department of Environmental Science, Fukuoka Women's University, 1-1-1, Kasumigaoka, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka City 813-8529, Japan
Water and Lifestyle Research Laboratory, 31-3, Munakata, Fukuoka 811-4141, Japan
Department of Architecture, Meiji University, 1-1-1, Higashimita, Tama-ku, Kawasaki City 214-8571, Japan
Department of Interior Design, Tungnan University, 152-3, Beishen RD., Shenkeng DIST., New Taipei-City 222, Taiwan
Department of Interior Design, National Taichung University of Science and Technology, 129-3, Sanming RD., Taichung-City 404, Taiwan
Department of Architecture, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, 43-4, Keelung RD., Taipei-City 10607, Taiwan
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Miklas Scholz
Received: 20 April 2015 / Revised: 21 July 2015 / Accepted: 22 July 2015 / Published: 30 July 2015
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [287 KB, uploaded 30 July 2015]   |  


The purpose of this study was to construct a scheme that makes it possible to compare the relationship between water usage, satisfaction, and physical properties in three countries. The physical properties of the shower were measured using physical properties testing apparatus of water-saving standard or scheme for showerheads issued in several water-saving countries and data for users satisfaction evaluation was acquired through bathing experiments. In this paper, we analyzed the result from Taiwanese and Vietnamese individuals to compare them to of Japanese subjects analyzed in the previous study. We compared the physical properties of showers assessed low in satisfaction by Taiwanese, Vietnamese and Japanese subjects. It was assumed that spray pattern tends to decrease satisfaction when the water volume ratio within 100 mm and 150 mm of a measuring device is located a 450 mm distance from the showerhead is low, and that, because all three countries showed the same value, it was imagined that there were no differences in the water volume ratio of high-satisfaction showerheads among three countries. On the other hand, the values of Spray Force-per-Hole, Temperature Drop, and Spray Angle were different among three countries. We speculated that these differences are affected respectively by ethnic differences in pain tolerance, thermoregulatory response and bathing habit. View Full-Text
Keywords: shower; standard; physical property; Taiwan; Vietnam shower; standard; physical property; Taiwan; Vietnam

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Okamoto, M.; Yaita, R.; Sato, M.; Kamijo, M.; Toyosada, K.; Shimizu, Y.; Sakaue, K.; Liao, W.-J.; Lee, M.-C.; Cheng, C.-L. Comparison of the Physical Properties of Showers that the Satisfaction of Shower Feeling among Users in Three Asian Countries. Water 2015, 7, 4161-4174.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top