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Water 2015, 7(12), 6946-6966; doi:10.3390/w7126668

Estimating Costs and Effectiveness of Upgrades in Forestry Best Management Practices for Stream Crossings

1
Department of Forest Resources and Environmental Conservation, Virginia Tech, 228 Cheatham Hall, 310 West Campus Dr., Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
2
School of Forestry, College of Engineering, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8041, New Zealand
3
Department of Forest Resources and Environmental Conservation and Virginia Water Resources Research Center, Virginia Tech, 210 Cheatham Hall, 310 West Campus Dr., Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Kelly T. Morgan and Monica Ozores-Hampton
Received: 26 October 2015 / Revised: 20 November 2015 / Accepted: 26 November 2015 / Published: 8 December 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue BMP Development, Implementation, and Performance)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3116 KB, uploaded 8 December 2015]   |  

Abstract

Forestry Best Management Practices (BMPs) are used for protection of water quality at forest stream crossings, yet effects and costs for gradients of BMPs are not well documented. We evaluated forty-two truck road and skid trail stream crossings using three surrogates of BMP adequacy: (1) potential erosion rates for stream crossing approaches; (2) adequacy of stream crossing BMPs; and (3) overall BMP rating (BMP−, BMP-standard, and BMP+). Subsequently, BMP upgrades were recommended for enhancing BMP− or BMP-standard stream crossings. Costs for BMP upgrades were estimated using an existing road and skid trail cost method. The majority of truck road stream crossings were culverts, while skid trail stream crossings were primarily portable bridges. Potential erosion estimates, BMP audit scores, and BMP ratings all indicated that skid crossings have lower BMP implementation than truck road crossings. BMP improvements commonly identified for skid trail and truck crossings included addition of cover and water control structures. Improved BMPs at skid trail crossings were less expensive than those at truck road crossings. Current BMP guidelines provide economical and effective techniques for reducing erosion, and BMP upgrades have the potential to reduce erosion rates to similar levels found in undisturbed forests. View Full-Text
Keywords: forest roads; skid trails; erosion; best management practices; stream crossings; BMP costs forest roads; skid trails; erosion; best management practices; stream crossings; BMP costs
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Nolan, L.; Aust, W.M.; Barrett, S.M.; Bolding, M.C.; Brown, K.; McGuire, K. Estimating Costs and Effectiveness of Upgrades in Forestry Best Management Practices for Stream Crossings. Water 2015, 7, 6946-6966.

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