Next Article in Journal
Empirical Modeling of Spatial 3D Flow Characteristics Using a Remote-Controlled ADCP System: Monitoring a Spring Flood
Previous Article in Journal
Tracing the Nitrate Sources of the Yili River in the Taihu Lake Watershed: A Dual Isotope Approach
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Water 2015, 7(1), 202-216;

Seasonal Demand Dynamics of Residential Water End-Uses

Department of Infrastructure Engineering, Melbourne School of Engineering, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Vic 3010, Australia
CSIRO Land and Water, Highett, Victoria 3190, Australia
Integrated Water and Land Management Program, International Centre for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas, P.O. Box 2416, Cairo, Egypt
Flood Forecasting and Warning Branch, Bureau of Meteorology, GPO Box 1289, Melbourne, Victoria 3001, Australia
Yarra Valley Water, Lucknow St, Mitcham, Victoria 3132, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Enedir Ghisi
Received: 21 July 2014 / Accepted: 19 December 2014 / Published: 7 January 2015
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [238 KB, uploaded 9 June 2015]   |  


Water demand prediction by end-use at an appropriate spatial and temporal resolution is essential for planning water supply systems that will supply water from a diversified set of sources on a fit-for-purpose basis. Understanding seasonal, daily and sub-daily water demand including peak demand by end-uses is an essential planning requirement to implement a fit-for-purpose water supply strategy. Studies in the literature assume that all indoor water uses except evaporative cooler water use are weather independent and do not exhibit seasonal variability. This paper presents an analysis undertaken to examine seasonal variability of residential water end-uses. The analysis was repeated using two sets of data to ensure the validity of findings. The study shows that shower water use is significantly different between winter and summer, in addition to irrigation, evaporative cooler and pool water end-uses, while other water end-uses are not. Weather is shown to be a significant determinant of shower water use; in particular it affects shower duration which increases with lower temperature. Further analysis on shower water use suggests that it is driven by behavioural factors in addition to weather, thus providing useful insights to improve detailed end-use water demand predictions. View Full-Text
Keywords: household water demand; seasonal variability; water end-uses household water demand; seasonal variability; water end-uses

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Rathnayaka, K.; Malano, H.; Maheepala, S.; George, B.; Nawarathna, B.; Arora, M.; Roberts, P. Seasonal Demand Dynamics of Residential Water End-Uses. Water 2015, 7, 202-216.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top