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Water 2015, 7(1), 202-216; doi:10.3390/w7010202

Seasonal Demand Dynamics of Residential Water End-Uses

1
Department of Infrastructure Engineering, Melbourne School of Engineering, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Vic 3010, Australia
2
CSIRO Land and Water, Highett, Victoria 3190, Australia
3
Integrated Water and Land Management Program, International Centre for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas, P.O. Box 2416, Cairo, Egypt
4
Flood Forecasting and Warning Branch, Bureau of Meteorology, GPO Box 1289, Melbourne, Victoria 3001, Australia
5
Yarra Valley Water, Lucknow St, Mitcham, Victoria 3132, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Enedir Ghisi
Received: 21 July 2014 / Accepted: 19 December 2014 / Published: 7 January 2015
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Abstract

Water demand prediction by end-use at an appropriate spatial and temporal resolution is essential for planning water supply systems that will supply water from a diversified set of sources on a fit-for-purpose basis. Understanding seasonal, daily and sub-daily water demand including peak demand by end-uses is an essential planning requirement to implement a fit-for-purpose water supply strategy. Studies in the literature assume that all indoor water uses except evaporative cooler water use are weather independent and do not exhibit seasonal variability. This paper presents an analysis undertaken to examine seasonal variability of residential water end-uses. The analysis was repeated using two sets of data to ensure the validity of findings. The study shows that shower water use is significantly different between winter and summer, in addition to irrigation, evaporative cooler and pool water end-uses, while other water end-uses are not. Weather is shown to be a significant determinant of shower water use; in particular it affects shower duration which increases with lower temperature. Further analysis on shower water use suggests that it is driven by behavioural factors in addition to weather, thus providing useful insights to improve detailed end-use water demand predictions. View Full-Text
Keywords: household water demand; seasonal variability; water end-uses household water demand; seasonal variability; water end-uses
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Rathnayaka, K.; Malano, H.; Maheepala, S.; George, B.; Nawarathna, B.; Arora, M.; Roberts, P. Seasonal Demand Dynamics of Residential Water End-Uses. Water 2015, 7, 202-216.

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