Next Article in Journal
Genetic Basis for Geosmin Production by the Water Bloom-Forming Cyanobacterium, Anabaena ucrainica
Next Article in Special Issue
Development of a Comprehensive Fouling Model for a Rotating Membrane Bioreactor System Treating Wastewater
Previous Article in Journal
The Spanish Food Industry on Global Supply Chains and Its Impact on Water Resources
Previous Article in Special Issue
Monitoring of Non-Point Source Pollutions from an Agriculture Watershed in South China
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Water 2015, 7(1), 153-174;

An Overview of Hybrid Water Supply Systems in the Context of Urban Water Management: Challenges and Opportunities

Department of Infrastructure Engineering, Melbourne School of Engineering, University of Melbourne, VIC 3010, Australia
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) Land and Water, Highett, VIC 3190, Australia
Institute of Sustainability and Innovation, Victoria University, Melbourne, VIC 3030, Australia
International Centre for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas, P.O. Box 2416, Cairo, Egypt
Yarra Valley Water, Mitcham, VIC 3132, Australia
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Say-Leong Ong and Jiangyongg Hu
Received: 12 November 2014 / Accepted: 23 December 2014 / Published: 29 December 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Control and Management)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [277 KB, uploaded 9 June 2015]   |  


This paper presents a critical review of the physical impacts of decentralized water supply systems on existing centralized water infrastructures. This paper highlights the combination of centralized and decentralized systems, which is referred to as hybrid water supply systems. The system is hypothesized to generate more sustainable and resilient urban water systems. The basic concept is to use decentralized water supply options such as rainwater tanks, storm water harvesting and localized wastewater treatment and reuse in combination with centralized systems. Currently the impact of hybrid water supply technologies on the operational performance of the downstream infrastructure and existing treatment processes is yet to be known. The paper identifies a number of significant research gaps related to interactions between centralized and decentralized urban water services. It indicates that an improved understanding of the interaction between these systems is expected to provide a better integration of hybrid systems by improved sewerage and drainage design, as well as facilitate operation and maintenance planning. The paper also highlights the need for a framework to better understand the interaction between different components of hybrid water supply systems. View Full-Text
Keywords: hybrid water supply systems; wastewater; stormwater; water infrastructures hybrid water supply systems; wastewater; stormwater; water infrastructures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Sapkota, M.; Arora, M.; Malano, H.; Moglia, M.; Sharma, A.; George, B.; Pamminger, F. An Overview of Hybrid Water Supply Systems in the Context of Urban Water Management: Challenges and Opportunities. Water 2015, 7, 153-174.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top