Next Article in Journal
The Prediction Methods for Potential Suspended Solids Clogging Types during Managed Aquifer Recharge
Previous Article in Journal
An Input-Output Assessment of Water Productivity in the Castile and León Region (Spain)
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Water 2014, 6(4), 945-960; https://doi.org/10.3390/w6040945

Reliability and Cost Analysis of a Rainwater Harvesting System in Peri-Urban Regions of Greater Sydney, Australia

1
School of Engineering, University of Duhok, 38 Zakho Street, Duhok, Kurdistan Region 1006 AJ, Iraq
2
School of Computing, Engineering and Mathematics, University of Western Sydney, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith, NSW 2751, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 December 2013 / Revised: 1 April 2014 / Accepted: 2 April 2014 / Published: 14 April 2014
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [513 KB, uploaded 9 June 2015]   |  

Abstract

In large cities, rainwater tanks are used to save mains water, but in peri-urban and rural areas, rainwater tanks are used as a sole water supply for many households, as these regions often do not have any other means of water supply. This paper investigates the performance of a rainwater harvesting system (RWHS) in peri-urban regions of Greater Sydney, Australia. Considering the daily rainfall data over the entire period of record at ten different locations, it has been found that a 5 kL tank can meet 96% to 99% of the demand for toilet and laundry use depending on the location in Greater Sydney regions. However, in the driest year, a 5 kL tank can meet 69% to 99% of toilet and laundry demand depending on the location. Based on the results of life cycle cost analysis, it has been found that a 5 kL tank has the highest benefit–cost ratio (ranging from 0.86 to 0.97) among the eight possible tank sizes examined in this study. Interestingly, for a 5 kL tank, with a combined use (i.e., toilet, laundry and irrigation), the current water price in Sydney needs to be increased by 3% to 16% to achieve a benefit–cost ratio exceeding one. A set of regression equations are developed which can be used to estimate reliability using the average annual rainfall data at any arbitrary location in the peri-urban regions of Greater Sydney. The method presented in this paper can also be applied to other Australian states and other countries to estimate water savings and reliability of a RWHS using daily rainfall data. View Full-Text
Keywords: rainwatertanks; peri-urban region; water sensitive urban design; water conservation; life cycle cost analysis rainwatertanks; peri-urban region; water sensitive urban design; water conservation; life cycle cost analysis
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Hajani, E.; Rahman, A. Reliability and Cost Analysis of a Rainwater Harvesting System in Peri-Urban Regions of Greater Sydney, Australia. Water 2014, 6, 945-960.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top