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Water 2014, 6(4), 858-867; doi:10.3390/w6040858
Communication

An Estimate of Energy Available via Microbial Sulfate Reduction at a Quaternary Aquifer in Northern Japan considered for Low Temperature Thermal Energy Storage

*  and
North Japan Research Institute for Sustainable Energy, Hirosaki University, 2-1-3 Matsubara, Aomori 030-0813, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 January 2014 / Revised: 16 March 2014 / Accepted: 19 March 2014 / Published: 9 April 2014
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Abstract

The energy available via microbial sulfate reduction was estimated for a Quaternary aquifer in northern Japan that is a candidate site for low temperature aquifer thermal energy storage. In evaluating whether microbial sulfate reduction proceeded or ceased, it was assumed that electron donor/acceptor concentrations were unchanged by temperature increase. The estimated energy availability via microbial sulfate reduction at 9 °C with no thermal disturbance was 37, 51, and 53 kJ·(mol SO42)−1. The low estimate of 37 kJ·(mol SO42)−1 was attributed to low concentration of SO42. Excluding the sampling site with low concentration of electron acceptors, energy availability was estimated 52 and 54 kJ·(mol SO42)−1 at 20 °C; 54 and 57 kJ·(mol SO42)−1 at 40 °C; and 57 and 59 kJ·(mol SO42)−1 at 60 °C. These results indicate that possible energy availability via microbial sulfate reduction at approximately 40–60 °C exceeded the range of available energy (compiled from previous studies) at which sulfate reduction would cease. Thus, microbial sulfate reduction at this site may proceed at approximately 40–60 °C.
Keywords: energy availability; microbial sulfate reduction; low temperature thermal storage; Quaternary aquifer; northern Japan energy availability; microbial sulfate reduction; low temperature thermal storage; Quaternary aquifer; northern Japan
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Ioka, S.; Muraoka, H. An Estimate of Energy Available via Microbial Sulfate Reduction at a Quaternary Aquifer in Northern Japan considered for Low Temperature Thermal Energy Storage. Water 2014, 6, 858-867.

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