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Water 2014, 6(11), 3478-3494; doi:10.3390/w6113478

Using a Statistical Model to Examine the Effect of COD: SO42 Ratio, HRT and LA Concentration on Sulfate Reduction in an Anaerobic Sequencing Batch Reactor

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Windsor, 401 Sunset Ave., Windsor, ON N9B 3P4, Canada
Current address: School of Environment and Sustainable Development, Central University of Gujarat, Sector-30, Gandhinagar 382030, India.
Current address: Korea Institute of Energy Research, 152 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu 305343, Daejeon, Korea.
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 August 2014 / Revised: 30 October 2014 / Accepted: 5 November 2014 / Published: 14 November 2014
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Abstract

Taguchi statistical design, an orthogonal array (OA) method, was used to study the impact of the COD/SO42− ratio, hydraulic retention time (HRT) and linoleic acid (LA) concentration on sulfate (SO42−) reduction in an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor using glucose as the electron donor. Based on the OA, optimum condition for maximum SO42− reduction was evaluated. Increasing the COD/SO42− ratio and HRT caused decreasing SO42− reduction while increased SO42− reduction was observed with increasing LA concentration (1 g L−1). In control (not fed LA) cultures, higher SO42− reduction (87% ± 3%) was observed at a low COD/SO42− ratio of 0.8. This indicates that increasing SO42− reduction was observed at increasing SO42− loading rates. In general, results from this study reveal that limiting the substrate concentration with high SO42− levels (low COD/SO42− ratio) favors high SO42− removal. Surface plots were used to evaluate the significant interactions between the experimental factors. Accuracy of the model was verified using an analysis of residuals. Optimum conditions for maximum SO42− reduction (97.61%) were observed at a COD/SO42− ratio of 0.8 (level 1), 12 h HRT (level 1) together with 1000 mg L−1 LA addition (level 3). In general, the Taguchi OA provided a useful approach for predicting the percent SO42− reduction in inhibited mixed anaerobic cultures within the factor levels investigated. View Full-Text
Keywords: sulfate reduction; taguchi orthogonal array; mixed anaerobic culture; hydraulic retention time (HRT); COD/SO42− ratio sulfate reduction; taguchi orthogonal array; mixed anaerobic culture; hydraulic retention time (HRT); COD/SO42− ratio
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Singh, R.; Moon, C.; Veeravalli, S.S.; Shanmugam, S.R.; Chaganti, S.R.; Lalman, J.A. Using a Statistical Model to Examine the Effect of COD: SO42 Ratio, HRT and LA Concentration on Sulfate Reduction in an Anaerobic Sequencing Batch Reactor. Water 2014, 6, 3478-3494.

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