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Water 2014, 6(11), 3409-3432; doi:10.3390/w6113409

Self-Powered Desalination of Geothermal Saline Groundwater: Technical Feasibility

1
Sustainable Environment Research Group, School of Engineering and Applied Science, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, King Saud University, PO Box 800, Riyadh 11421, Saudi Arabia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 July 2014 / Revised: 16 October 2014 / Accepted: 22 October 2014 / Published: 12 November 2014
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Abstract

This theoretical study shows the technical feasibility of self-powered geothermal desalination of groundwater sources at <100 °C. A general method and framework are developed and then applied to specific case studies. First, the analysis considers an ideal limit to performance based on exergy analysis using generalised idealised assumptions. This thermodynamic limit applies to any type of process technology. Then, the analysis focuses specifically on the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) driving Reverse Osmosis (RO), as these are among the most mature and efficient applicable technologies. Important dimensionless parameters are calculated for the ideal case of the self-powered arrangement and semi-ideal case where only essential losses dependent on the RO system configuration are considered. These parameters are used to compare the performance of desalination systems using ORC-RO under ideal, semi-ideal and real assumptions for four case studies relating to geothermal sources located in India, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia and Turkey. The overall system recovery ratio (the key performance measure for the self-powered process) depends strongly on the geothermal source temperature. It can be as high as 91.5% for a hot spring emerging at 96 °C with a salinity of 1830 mg/kg. View Full-Text
Keywords: desalination; brackish water; organic Rankine cycle; geothermal; reverse osmosis; exergy; self-powered; high recovery desalination; brackish water; organic Rankine cycle; geothermal; reverse osmosis; exergy; self-powered; high recovery
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Davies, P.A.; Orfi, J. Self-Powered Desalination of Geothermal Saline Groundwater: Technical Feasibility. Water 2014, 6, 3409-3432.

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