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Water 2014, 6(11), 3247-3263; doi:10.3390/w6113247

Effects of Commercially Available Ultrasound on the Zooplankton Grazer Daphnia and Consequent Water Greening in Laboratory Experiments

1
Aquatic Ecology & Water Quality Management Group, Department of Environmental Sciences, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 47, Wageningen 6700 AA, The Netherlands
2
Department of Aquatic Ecology, Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW), P.O. Box 50, Wageningen 6700 AB, The Netherlands
3
Regional Water Authority Delfland, P.O. Box 3061, Delft 2061 DB, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 July 2014 / Revised: 9 October 2014 / Accepted: 11 October 2014 / Published: 28 October 2014
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Abstract

We tested the hypothesis that ultrasound in controlling cyanobacteria and algal blooms is “environmental friendly” by exposing the non-target zooplankton grazer Daphnia magna to ultrasound produced by commercially available ultrasound transducers. In populations of 15 Daphnia (~2 mm body size) exposed in 800 mL of water to ultrasound supplied at 20 kHz, 28 kHz, 36 kHz or 44 kHz, all animals were killed between 10 min (44 kHz) and 135 min (20 kHz). Differently sized Daphnia (0.7–3.2 mm) were all killed between 4 and 30 min when exposed to 44 kHz. Increasing water volumes up to 3.2 L and thus lowering the ultrasound intensity did not markedly increase survival of Daphnia exposed to 44 kHz ultrasound. A tank experiment with six 85 L tanks containing a mixture of green algae, cyanobacteria and D. magna was performed to study the effect of ultrasound over a longer time period (25 d). In controls, when Daphnia flourished, algal biomass dropped and the water became clear. In contrast, in ultrasound treatments, Daphnia abundance was extremely low releasing phytoplankton from grazing control, which resulted in high phytoplankton biomass. Hence, we conclude that ultrasound from commercially available transducers sold to clear ponds, aquaria and small reservoirs, should not be considered environmentally friendly and cannot be viewed as efficient in controlling phytoplankton. View Full-Text
Keywords: blooms; eutrophication control; lake restoration; mitigation; phytoplankton control blooms; eutrophication control; lake restoration; mitigation; phytoplankton control
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lürling, M.; Tolman, Y. Effects of Commercially Available Ultrasound on the Zooplankton Grazer Daphnia and Consequent Water Greening in Laboratory Experiments. Water 2014, 6, 3247-3263.

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