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Water 2013, 5(2), 629-637; doi:10.3390/w5020629
Article

The Life Cycle CO2 (LCCO2) Evaluation of Retrofits for Water-Saving Fittings

Received: 27 February 2013; in revised form: 17 May 2013 / Accepted: 20 May 2013 / Published: 31 May 2013
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Abstract: As part of measures being taken against global warming, the reduction of CO2 emissions by retrofitting for water-saving fittings in homes is spreading throughout the world. However, although this retrofitting reduces the environmental impact at the use stage, it generates new impacts at the production and disposal stages. In addition, there has been little research that discusses the reduction in environmental impact obtained by retrofitting from the viewpoint of the overall life cycle of such fittings. In this paper, an evaluation of the environmental impact of retrofitting in terms of the entire life cycle was carried out for toilet bowls and showerheads. The findings show that even for a toilet bowl that generates a large environmental load at the production stage, there is no overall increase in the environmental impact by retrofitting for the average usable life of 20 years.
Keywords: global warming; CO2 reduction; water; saving-water; retrofit global warming; CO2 reduction; water; saving-water; retrofit
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Shimizu, Y. The Life Cycle CO2 (LCCO2) Evaluation of Retrofits for Water-Saving Fittings. Water 2013, 5, 629-637.

AMA Style

Shimizu Y. The Life Cycle CO2 (LCCO2) Evaluation of Retrofits for Water-Saving Fittings. Water. 2013; 5(2):629-637.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Shimizu, Yasutoshi. 2013. "The Life Cycle CO2 (LCCO2) Evaluation of Retrofits for Water-Saving Fittings." Water 5, no. 2: 629-637.


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