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Grey Water Reuse for Agricultural Purposes in the Jordan Valley: Household Survey Results in Deir Alla
Royal Scientific Society, Knowledge, Amman-al Jubaiha 11941, Jordan
Water Resources Research Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 June 2012; in revised form: 19 July 2012 / Accepted: 20 July 2012 / Published: 6 August 2012
Abstract: Installation of decentralized grey water treatment systems in small rural communities contributes to a more sustainable water supply. In order to gauge community attitudes about collection and use of grey water, a door-to-door survey in the farming community of Deir Alla, Jordan was conducted by Royal Scientific Society interviewers. Outcomes of a detailed survey, designed specifically for this project, offer insights on people’s views on general water and wastewater issues, as well as their motivation, practices and concerns related to using grey water treatment for a portion of their household wastewater and reuse of the treated grey water for irrigation. A total of 47 respondents from different socio-economic background, aged over 18 years, from this community in the Jordan valley took part in the survey. The level of formal education of the respondents was low, and most of households’ incomes were below the poverty line in Jordan. Most of the respondents reported that the quality of water supplied by public network is acceptable, but the quantity is insufficient to meet their demand, with supplies being delivered to the household once a week. Respondents relied on the public water network as a first-most important resource (85.1%), and 57.4% of the respondent relied on private water tankers as a second-most important resource in addition to the public network. However, 6% of the respondents relied only on private water tankers with no access to the public network. Storage tanks are common practice in all the houses in order to store enough water for at least one week. The survey responses provide evidence that rural communities are willing to accept reuse of treated grey water for irrigation. Furthermore, some of people in the studied area are willing to learn more about grey water treatment and reuse in order to operate grey water systems for irrigation purposes. Water scarcity in this rural area of Jordan is the main determinant of willingness to reuse the grey water, rather than socio-economic variables.
Keywords: grey water; reuse; wastewater; Jordan; water supply; rural community; water sustainability; cesspools; irrigation
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Al-Mashaqbeh, O.A.; Ghrair, A.M.; Megdal, S.B. Grey Water Reuse for Agricultural Purposes in the Jordan Valley: Household Survey Results in Deir Alla. Water 2012, 4, 580-596.
Al-Mashaqbeh OA, Ghrair AM, Megdal SB. Grey Water Reuse for Agricultural Purposes in the Jordan Valley: Household Survey Results in Deir Alla. Water. 2012; 4(3):580-596.
Al-Mashaqbeh, Othman A.; Ghrair, Ayoup M.; Megdal, Sharon B. 2012. "Grey Water Reuse for Agricultural Purposes in the Jordan Valley: Household Survey Results in Deir Alla." Water 4, no. 3: 580-596.