Water 2012, 4(1), 45-62; doi:10.3390/w4010045
Article

Integrating the Carbon and Water Footprints’ Costs in the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC Full Water Cost Recovery Concept: Basic Principles Towards Their Reliable Calculation and Socially Just Allocation

Received: 27 October 2011; in revised form: 14 December 2011 / Accepted: 29 December 2011 / Published: 16 January 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Managing Water Resources and Development in a Changing Climate)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: This paper presents the basic principles for the integration of the water and carbon footprints cost into the resource and environmental costs respectively, taking the suggestions set by the Water Framework Directive (WFD) 2000/60/EC one step forward. WFD states that full water cost recovery (FWCR) should be based on the estimation of the three sub-costs related: direct; environmental; and resource cost. It also strongly suggests the EU Member States develop and apply effective water pricing policies to achieve FWCR. These policies must be socially just to avoid any social injustice phenomena. This is a very delicate task to handle, especially within the fragile economic conditions that the EU is facing today. Water losses play a crucial role for the FWC estimation. Water losses should not be neglected since they are one of the major “water uses” in any water supply network. A methodology is suggested to reduce water losses and the related Non Revenue Water (NRW) index. An Expert Decision Support System is proposed to assess the FWC incorporating the Water and Carbon Footprint costs.
Keywords: carbon footprint; water footprint; virtual water; full water cost; water losses
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kanakoudis, V.; Tsitsifli, S.; Papadopoulou, A. Integrating the Carbon and Water Footprints’ Costs in the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC Full Water Cost Recovery Concept: Basic Principles Towards Their Reliable Calculation and Socially Just Allocation. Water 2012, 4, 45-62.

AMA Style

Kanakoudis V, Tsitsifli S, Papadopoulou A. Integrating the Carbon and Water Footprints’ Costs in the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC Full Water Cost Recovery Concept: Basic Principles Towards Their Reliable Calculation and Socially Just Allocation. Water. 2012; 4(1):45-62.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kanakoudis, Vasilis; Tsitsifli, Stavroula; Papadopoulou, Anastasia. 2012. "Integrating the Carbon and Water Footprints’ Costs in the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC Full Water Cost Recovery Concept: Basic Principles Towards Their Reliable Calculation and Socially Just Allocation." Water 4, no. 1: 45-62.

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