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Water 2018, 10(9), 1209; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10091209

Hydrogeochemical Characterization and Quality Assessment of Groundwater in a Long-Term Reclaimed Water Irrigation Area, North China Plain

1
School of Geographic Science, Nantong University, Nantong 226000, China
2
Faculty of Geosciences and Environmental Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 611756, China
3
School of Renewable Energy, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206, China
4
Institute of Hydrogeology and Environmental Geology, Chinese Academy of Geological Science, Shijiazhuang 050061, China
5
Beijing Water Science and Technology Institute, Beijing 100044, China
6
Beijing Daxing Water Resources Bureau, Beijing 102600, China
7
Geological Environmental Monitoring Central Station of Qinghai Province, Xining 810008, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 July 2018 / Revised: 2 September 2018 / Accepted: 5 September 2018 / Published: 7 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Water Quality and Ecosystems)
Full-Text   |   PDF [19233 KB, uploaded 7 September 2018]   |  

Abstract

Water scarcity has led to wide use of reclaimed water for irrigation worldwide, which may threaten groundwater quality. To understand the status of groundwater in the reclaimed water irrigation area in Beijing, 87 samples from both shallow and deep aquifers were collected to determine the factors affecting groundwater chemistry and to assess groundwater quality for drinking and irrigation purposes. The results show that groundwater in both shallow and deep aquifers in the study area is weakly alkaline freshwater with hydrogeochemical faces dominated by HCO3-Na·Mg·Ca, HCO3-Mg·Ca·Na, HCO3-Ca·Na, and HCO3-Na. The chemical composition of groundwater in both shallow and deep aquifers is dominantly controlled by the dissolution of halite, gypsum, anhydrite, and silicates weathering, as well as ion exchange. Geogenic processes (rock weathering and ion exchange) are the only mechanisms controlling groundwater chemistry in deep aquifers. Besides geogenic processes, evaporation and anthropogenic activities also affect the chemistry of shallow groundwater. Quality assessment reveals that both shallow and deep groundwater are generally suitable for drinking and irrigation purposes. The quality of deep groundwater is more excellent for drinking than shallow groundwater. However, long-term use of deep groundwater for irrigation exhibits higher potential risks to deteriorate soil property due to the relative higher permeability indexes (PI). Therefore, it is recommended that deep groundwater is preferentially used for drinking and domestic purpose, and shallow groundwater for agricultural irrigation. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydrochemistry; influencing factors; groundwater quality assessment; EWQI; Beijing hydrochemistry; influencing factors; groundwater quality assessment; EWQI; Beijing
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Gu, X.; Xiao, Y.; Yin, S.; Hao, Q.; Liu, H.; Hao, Z.; Meng, G.; Pei, Q.; Yan, H. Hydrogeochemical Characterization and Quality Assessment of Groundwater in a Long-Term Reclaimed Water Irrigation Area, North China Plain. Water 2018, 10, 1209.

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