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Water 2018, 10(8), 1101; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10081101

Analysis of Irrigation Canal System Characteristics in Heilongjiang Province and the Influence on Irrigation Water Use Efficiency

1,2,3
,
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1,2,3,* , 1,2,3
and
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1
School of Water Conservancy and Civil Engineering, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, China
2
The Key Lab of High Efficient Utilization in Agricultural Water Resources of Ministry of Agriculture of China, Harbin 150030, China
3
Heilongjiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Water Resources and Water Conservancy Engineering in Cold Region, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 July 2018 / Revised: 16 August 2018 / Accepted: 16 August 2018 / Published: 18 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Water Resources Management and Governance)
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Abstract

Irrigation water use efficiency is a primary evaluation index that links economic production development with the efficient use of water resources. Canal water conveyance is an important part of irrigation, and the distribution characteristics of canal systems have an important influence on irrigation water use efficiency. In this paper, 75 irrigated districts in Heilongjiang Province in 2015 were selected as the study objects. The main, branch, lateral, and sublateral canals were graded into first-, second-, third-, and fourth-order classes, respectively. The irrigation districts were divided into three classes, that is, four-order, three-order, and two-order, according to the canal orders that the irrigation districts contained. The canal system framework was described by Horton’s law. The fractal dimension of the canal system was calculated based on the bifurcation ratio and length ratio of the canals. The relationships between fractal dimensions and irrigation water use efficiency were evaluated. The results showed that the irrigation water use efficiency of the four-order and three-order irrigation districts initially increased and then decreased with increases in the fractal dimension (D). In the irrigation districts, an irrigation water use efficiency of more than 10 × 103 hm2 and less than 0.67 × 103 hm2 was proportional to the increase in the fractal dimension, whereas the opposite result was found for districts with (0.67–10) × 103 hm2. The irrigation water use efficiency of the four-order and two-order irrigation districts with less than 3.3 × 103 hm2 had the greatest potential to increase the water use efficiency. Therefore, canal system reconstruction suggestions for different irrigation districts were provided. The results have important theoretical significance and practical value for the improvement of irrigation construction and the promotion of irrigation water efficiency planning. View Full-Text
Keywords: irrigation district; canal system complexity; irrigation water use efficiency; Horton’s law irrigation district; canal system complexity; irrigation water use efficiency; Horton’s law
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Li, T.; Sun, M.; Fu, Q.; Cui, S.; Liu, D. Analysis of Irrigation Canal System Characteristics in Heilongjiang Province and the Influence on Irrigation Water Use Efficiency. Water 2018, 10, 1101.

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