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Water 2018, 10(7), 939; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10070939

Developing a Statistical Model to Improve Drinking Water Quality for Water Distribution System by Minimizing Heavy Metal Releases

Faculty of Engineering, University of Regina, Regina, SK S4S 0A2, Canada
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Received: 14 May 2018 / Revised: 5 July 2018 / Accepted: 6 July 2018 / Published: 14 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Water Distribution Networks)
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Abstract

This paper proposes a novel statistical approach for blending source waters in a public water distribution system to improve water quality (WQ) by minimizing the release of heavy metals (HMR). Normally, introducing a new source changes the original balanced environment and causes adverse effects on the WQ in a water distribution system. One harmful consequence of blending source water is the release of heavy metals, including lead, copper and iron. Most HMR studies focus on the forecasting of unfavorable effects using precise and complicated nonlinear equations. This paper uses a statistical multiple objectives optimization, namely Multiple Source Waters Blending Optimization (MSWBO), to find optimal blending ratios of source waters for minimizing three HMRs in a water supply system. In this paper, three response surface equations are applied to describe the reaction kinetics of HMR, and three dual response surface equations are used to track the standard deviations of the three response surface equations. A weighted sum method is performed for the multi-objective optimization problem to minimize three HMRs simultaneously. Finally, the experimental data of a pilot distribution system is used in the proposed statistical approach to demonstrate the model’s applicability, computational efficiency, and robustness. View Full-Text
Keywords: water quality (WQ); blending; release of heavy metals (HMR); dual response surface optimization (DRSO); multiple source waters blending optimization (MSWBO) water quality (WQ); blending; release of heavy metals (HMR); dual response surface optimization (DRSO); multiple source waters blending optimization (MSWBO)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Peng, W.; Mayorga, R.V. Developing a Statistical Model to Improve Drinking Water Quality for Water Distribution System by Minimizing Heavy Metal Releases. Water 2018, 10, 939.

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