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Water 2018, 10(5), 591; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10050591

Avoiding the Use of Exhausted Drinking Water Filters: A Filter-Clock Based on Rusting Iron

1
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Douala, Douala BP 24157, Cameroon
2
Department of Water and Environmental Science and Engineering, Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology, Arusha 447, Tanzania
3
School of Earth Science and Engineering, Hohai University, Fo Cheng Xi Road 8, Nanjing 211100, China
4
Biosystems and Environmental Engineering Research Group, Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zimbabwe, P.O. Box MP167, Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe
5
Bioresource Engineering Research Group (BioERG), Department of Biotechnology, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, P.O. Box 652, Cape Town 8000, South Africa
6
Department of Applied Geology, University of Göttingen, Goldschmidtstraße 3, D-37077 Göttingen, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 April 2018 / Revised: 29 April 2018 / Accepted: 30 April 2018 / Published: 2 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Water and Wastewater Treatment)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [673 KB, uploaded 2 May 2018]   |  

Abstract

Efficient but affordable water treatment technologies are currently sought to solve the prevalent shortage of safe drinking water. Adsorption-based technologies are in the front-line of these efforts. Upon proper design, universally applied materials (e.g., activated carbons, bone chars, metal oxides) are able to quantitatively remove inorganic and organic pollutants as well as pathogens from water. Each water filter has a defined removal capacity and must be replaced when this capacity is exhausted. Operational experience has shown that it may be difficult to convince some low-skilled users to buy new filters after a predicted service life. This communication describes the quest to develop a filter-clock to encourage all users to change their filters after the designed service life. A brief discussion on such a filter-clock based on rusting of metallic iron (Fe0) is presented. Integrating such filter-clocks in the design of water filters is regarded as essential for safeguarding public health. View Full-Text
Keywords: adsorptive filtration; frugal innovation; permeability loss; water treatment; waterborne diseases; zero-valent iron adsorptive filtration; frugal innovation; permeability loss; water treatment; waterborne diseases; zero-valent iron
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Ndé-Tchoupé, A.I.; Lufingo, M.; Hu, R.; Gwenzi, W.; Ntwampe, S.K.O.; Noubactep, C.; Njau, K.N. Avoiding the Use of Exhausted Drinking Water Filters: A Filter-Clock Based on Rusting Iron. Water 2018, 10, 591.

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