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Water 2018, 10(5), 582; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10050582

Influence of an Extended Domestic Drinking Water System on the Drinking Water Quality

1
Department of Water Management, Delft University of Technology, 2628 CN Delft, The Netherlands
2
Amsterdam Institute for Advanced Metropolitan Solutions, 1092 AD Amsterdam, The Netherlands
3
Het Waterlaboratorium, 2031 BE Haarlem, The Netherlands
4
Waternet, Strategic Centre, 1096 AC Amsterdam, The Netherlands
5
Evides Water Company, 3063 NH Rotterdam, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 March 2018 / Revised: 17 April 2018 / Accepted: 26 April 2018 / Published: 30 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Water Quality and Ecosystems)
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Abstract

Drinking water and fire safety are strongly bonded to each other. Actual drinking water demand and fire flows are both delivered through the same network, and are both devoted to public health and safety. In The Netherlands, the discussion about fire flows supplied by the drinking water networks has drawn fire fighters and drinking water companies together, searching for novel approaches to improve public safety. One of these approaches is the application of residential fire sprinkler systems fed by drinking water. This approach has an impact on the layout of domestic drinking water systems (DDWSs), as extra plumbing is required. This study examined the influence of the added plumbing on quality of both fresh and 10 h stagnant water in two full scale DDWSs: a conventional and an extended system. Overnight stagnation was found to promote copper and zinc leaching from pipes in both DDWSs. Microbial numbers and viability in the stagnant water, measured by heterotrophic plate count (HPC), flow cytometry (FCM) and adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP), depended on the temperature of fresh water, as increased microbial numbers and viability was measured in both DDWSs when the temperature of fresh water was below the observed tipping point (15 °C for the HPC and 17 °C for the FCM and ATP measurements respectively) and vice versa. A high level of similarity between water and biofilm communities, >98% and >70–94% respectively, indicates that the extension of the DDWS did not affect either the microbial quality of fresh drinking water or the biofilm composition. View Full-Text
Keywords: domestic drinking water systems; fire sprinklers; water quality; water temperature; water stagnation domestic drinking water systems; fire sprinklers; water quality; water temperature; water stagnation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Zlatanović, L.; Knezev, A.; van der Hoek, J.P.; Vreeburg, J.H.G. Influence of an Extended Domestic Drinking Water System on the Drinking Water Quality. Water 2018, 10, 582.

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