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Correction published on 29 June 2018, see Water 2018, 10(7), 866.

Open AccessArticle
Water 2018, 10(4), 486; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10040486

Identification and Chemical Characterization of Insoluble Contaminants in Hemodialysis Water Treatment

1
Renal, Vascular and Diabetes Laboratory, Fundacion Jimenez Diaz Research Institute (IIS-FJD), 28040 Madrid, Spain
2
Spanish Biomedical Research Centre in Diabetes and Associated Metabolic Disorders (CIBERDEM), 28029 Madrid, Spain
3
Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, IIS-Fundación Jimenez Diaz UAM, 28040 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 March 2018 / Revised: 31 March 2018 / Accepted: 9 April 2018 / Published: 16 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Water and Wastewater Treatment)
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Abstract

Product water that was used to prepare hemodialysis fluids from concentrate is purified to eliminate contaminants and to ensure treatment efficacy and patient safety. Thus, the dialysis fluid should be free of solid particles. Ultrafilters are used to remove any residual bacterial contaminants from the system. In 2014 and 2016, we received two ultrafilter samples containing particulate material from two independent dialysis centers. Malfunction of the water purification system was suspected. The insoluble solid particles that were observed in ultrafilters were studied using physical techniques of Scanning Electron microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Spectroscopy data gathered from electron microscopy acquisition, allowed for the characterization of the elemental composition of the contaminating particles, identifying the presence of silicon and alkaline ions not belonging to the membrane or to any component of the water purification process. This material most likely represented silicate in suspension in water, reaching the ultrafilters due to a bypass in the water purification process. In conclusion, physical analysis of macroscopic ultrafilter abnormalities may help to pinpoint the source of malfunction and to provide corrective action. View Full-Text
Keywords: dialysis water treatment; ultrafiltration; scanning electron microscopy; Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy; total reflection X-ray fluorescence dialysis water treatment; ultrafiltration; scanning electron microscopy; Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy; total reflection X-ray fluorescence
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Mas, S.; Egido, J.; Ortiz, A.; Gonzalez-Parra, E. Identification and Chemical Characterization of Insoluble Contaminants in Hemodialysis Water Treatment. Water 2018, 10, 486.

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