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Water 2018, 10(4), 449; doi:10.3390/w10040449

Estimating the Optical Properties of Inorganic Matter-Dominated Oligo-to-Mesotrophic Inland Waters

1
Department of Cartography, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Rua Roberto Simonsen 305, Presidente Prudente 19060-900, SP, Brazil
2
Department of Geography, Center for Geospatial Research, University of Georgia (UGA), Athens, GA 30602, USA
3
Department of Environmental Engineering, Institute of Science and Technology, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Rodovia Presidente Dutra Km 137.8, São José dos Campos 12247-004, SP, Brazil
4
Department of Geography, State University of Malang (UM), Jl. Semarang 5, Malang 65145, Indonesia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 March 2018 / Revised: 31 March 2018 / Accepted: 3 April 2018 / Published: 9 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Water Quality and Ecosystems)
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Abstract

Many studies over the years have focused on bio-optical modeling of inland waters to monitor water quality. However, those studies have been conducted mainly in eutrophic and hyper-eutrophic environments dominated by phytoplankton. With the launch of the Ocean and Land Colour Instrument (OLCI)/Sentinel-3A in 2016, a range of bands became available including the 709 nm band recommended for scaling up these bio-optical models for productive inland waters. It was found that one category of existing bio-optical models, the quasi-analytical algorithms (QAAs), when applied to colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and detritus-dominated waters, produce large errors. Even after shifting the reference wavelength to 709 nm, the recently re-parameterized QAA versions could not accurately retrieve the inherent optical properties (IOPs) in waterbodies dominated by inorganic matter. In this study, three existing versions of QAA were implemented and proved inefficient for the study site. Therefore, several changes were incorporated into the QAA, starting with the re-parameterization of the empirical steps related to the total absorption coefficient retrieval. The re-parameterized QAA, QAAOMW showed a significant improvement in the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). MAPE decreased from 58.05% for existing open ocean QAA (QAALv5) to 16.35% for QAAOMW. Considerable improvement was also observed in the estimation of the absorption coefficient of CDOM and detritus from a MAPE of 91.05% for QAALv5 to 18.87% for QAAOMW. The retrieval of the absorption coefficient of phytoplankton ( a ϕ ) using the native form of QAA proved to be inaccurate for the oligo-to-mesotrophic waterbody due to the low a ϕ returning negative predictions. Therefore, a novel approach based on the normalized a ϕ was adopted to maintain the spectral shape and retrieve positive values, resulting in an improvement of 119% in QAAOMW. Further tuning and scale-up of QAAOMW to OLCI bands will aid in monitoring water resources and associated watershed processes. View Full-Text
Keywords: water quality; inland waters; bio-optics; quasi-analytical algorithm; inherent optical properties; Brazilian reservoir water quality; inland waters; bio-optics; quasi-analytical algorithm; inherent optical properties; Brazilian reservoir
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Rodrigues, T.; Mishra, D.R.; Alcântara, E.; Astuti, I.; Watanabe, F.; Imai, N. Estimating the Optical Properties of Inorganic Matter-Dominated Oligo-to-Mesotrophic Inland Waters. Water 2018, 10, 449.

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